Dialogue

Vocabulary

Learn New Words FAST with this Lesson’s Vocab Review List

Get this lesson’s key vocab, their translations and pronunciations. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account Now and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Notes

Unlock In-Depth Explanations & Exclusive Takeaways with Printable Lesson Notes

Unlock Lesson Notes and Transcripts for every single lesson. Sign Up for a Free Lifetime Account and Get 7 Days of Premium Access.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Maya:“Namaste”, I’m Maya. Welcome to HindiPod101.com’s Beginner Season 1 Lesson 18 Lesson 18, This Indian Chai is Delicious!
Udita:“Namaste”, I’m “B”. In this lesson you’ll learn about complimenting someone’s cooking or work while using intransitive verbs.
Maya:The conversation takes place at the office.
Udita:The conversation is between an office worker and the tea-server.
Maya:The speakers are well-acquainted but work in different jobs so they have a formal relationship.
Udita:The speaker will therefore be speaking Polite Hindi. Let’s listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
A:भैय्या ये चाय बढ़िया बनी है! कुछ ख़ास डाला क्या? (bhaiyaa ye caae barhiyaa baNii hai! kuch khaaS daaLaa kyaa?)
B:वैसे तो कुछ भी नहीं, दूध में मलाई अच्छी थी और इलाइची डाली थी बस| (vaiSe To kuch bhii Bahiin, DuuDH mein maLaaii achhii THii aur iLaaicii daaLii THii baS.)
A:तभी तो, क्या सुगंध निकली है| बहुत अच्छी बनी है| (Tabhii To, kyaa sugaNDH NikLii hai. bahuT acchii baNii hai.)
B:जी शुक्रिया| (jii sukriyaa.)
A:एक कप और पिलाएंगे? (ek kap aur piLaayenge?)
B:हाँजी बिलकुल| (haanjii biLkuL.)
Maya: Now, let’s listen to the same conversation at a slow speed.
A:भैय्या ये चाय बढ़िया बनी है! कुछ ख़ास डाला क्या? (bhaiyaa ye caae barhiyaa baNii hai! kuch khaaS daaLaa kyaa?)
B:वैसे तो कुछ भी नहीं, दूध में मलाई अच्छी थी और इलाइची डाली थी बस| (vaiSe To kuch bhii Bahiin, DuuDH mein maLaaii achhii THii aur iLaaicii daaLii THii baS.)
A:तभी तो, क्या सुगंध निकली है| बहुत अच्छी बनी है| (Tabhii To, kyaa sugaNDH NikLii hai. bahuT acchii baNii hai.)
B:जी शुक्रिया| (jii sukriyaa.)
A:एक कप और पिलाएंगे? (ek kap aur piLaayenge?)
B:हाँजी बिलकुल| (haanjii biLkuL.)
Maya: Let’s now listen to the conversation with the English translation.
A:भैय्या ये चाय बढ़िया बनी है! कुछ ख़ास डाला क्या? (bhaiyaa ye caae barhiyaa baNii hai! kuch khaaS daaLaa kyaa?)
A: Bhaiyya, this tea is excellent! Did you add something special?
B:वैसे तो कुछ भी नहीं, दूध में मलाई अच्छी थी और इलाइची डाली थी बस| (vaiSe To kuch bhii Bahiin, DuuDH mein maLaaii achhii THii aur iLaaicii daaLii THii baS.)
B: Nothing special, really, the milk was just very creamy, and I added cardamom this time.
A:तभी तो, क्या सुगंध निकली है| बहुत अच्छी बनी है| (Tabhii To, kyaa sugaNDH NikLii hai. bahuT acchii baNii hai.)
A: That's why the aroma is wonderful! It's very good.
B:जी शुक्रिया| (jii sukriyaa.)
B: Thank you.
A:एक कप और पिलाएंगे? (ek kap aur piLaayenge?)
A: Will you give me another cup of tea?
B:हाँजी बिलकुल| (haanjii biLkuL.)
B: Yes, of course.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya:Now the चायवाला caaevaaLaa is an iconic and regular figure in daily life in India.
Udita:Anyone who makes or serves tea, which is called caae in Hindi, is known as ‘चायवाला caaevaaLaa.
Maya:Yes, and in many offices one man brings tea around, and is known as the चायवाला caaevaaLaa. There are also चायवाला caaevaaLaa in little tea shops on the sides of streets that sell thousands of cups of tea to passersby everyday.
Udita:These places sell chai all day in small clear glasses, which are strongly associated with tea.
Maya:Those glasses are synonymous with the चायवाला chaiwallah, and with the delicious creamy, sweet tea he would make.
Udita:Indian chai is made in a particular way. The milk is usually boiled, with or without the tea leaves, so the tea tastes creamy, and normal ‘चाय chai’ for Indians always has sugar.
Maya:Right, when people drink black tea they always specify this in India, because normal chai is milky and sweet.
Udita:And although masala chai is very famous, people don’t always put extra spices in their tea.
Maya:Well, in winter people sometimes add ginger, which is supposed to be good for the throat. And then on occasion people may add cardamom and cinnamon, and cloves, or even a pinch of pepper.
Udita:Yes, and most commonly ‘biscuits’ accompany chai. “chai biscuit” is a common phrase.
Maya:‘Biscuits’ in India, are British ‘cookies’ or ‘crackers’, which are like flat scones. People eat these with tea in India.
Udita:Biscuits are great to dip into your cup of hot tea, just briefly before you bite into it! There is nothing like enjoying a good cup of hot tea with ‘biscuits’, with friends on a rainy day in the monsoon!
VOCAB LIST
Maya: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Udita: इलाइची (iLaaicii) [natural native speed]
Maya: cardamom
Udita: इलाइची (iLaaicii) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: इलाइची (iLaaicii) [natural native speed]
Udita: वैसे तो (vaiSe To) [natural native speed]
Maya: in that sense
Udita: वैसे तो (vaiSe To) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: वैसे तो (vaiSe To) [natural native speed]
Udita: बस (baS) [natural native speed]
Maya: only, just
Udita: बस (baS) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: बस (baS) [natural native speed]
Udita: निकलना (NikaLNaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: to come out, to leave
Udita: निकलना (NikaLNaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: निकलना (NikaLNaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: स्वादिष्ट (swaaDisht) [natural native speed]
Maya: delicious
Udita: स्वादिष्ट (swaaDisht) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: स्वादिष्ट (swaaDisht) [natural native speed]
Udita: सुगंध (sugaNDH) [natural native speed]
Maya: aroma, fragrance
Udita: सुगंध (sugaNDH) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: सुगंध (sugaNDH) [natural native speed]
Udita: कुछ भी नहीं (kuch bhii Nahiin) [natural native speed]
Maya: nothing at all
Udita: कुछ भी नहीं (kuch bhii Nahiin) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: कुछ भी नहीं (kuch bhii Nahiin) [natural native speed]
Udita: बढ़िया (barhiyaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: excellent
Udita: बढ़िया (barhiyaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: बढ़िया (barhiyaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: तभी (Tabhii) [natural native speed]
Maya: that’s why
Udita: तभी (Tabhii) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: तभी (Tabhii) [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Maya:Let’s take a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is ‘ख़ास khaaS’ which means “special” and “extra”.
Udita:For example “यह ख़ास आपके लिए है ye khaaS aapke Lie hai” means “This is specially for you”.
Maya:That’s right. And when it is used along with the word ‘कर kar’ or ‘करके karke’ from the verb “करना karNaa” meaning “to do”, then the meaning becomes “specifically”.
Udita:For example “ “यहाँ डोसा अच्छी मिलती है, ख़ास करके रवा दोसा yahaan doSaa acchii miLTii hai, khaaS karke ravaa DoSaa”. This means “You can get good Dosa here, especially Rava Dosa.”
Maya:The next word is ‘बड़िया barhiyaa’ which is an adjective meaning “excellent” or “fantastic”. It is used to compliment someone’s work or skill.
Udita:As a phrase “बहुत बड़िया bahuT barhiyaa” can suffice as a compliment, meaning “very good!”
Maya:The next word is ‘सुगन्ध SugaNDH’ which is a noun that means “good smell” or “pleasant smell”.
Udita:To say “great smell” you can just add the word “अच्छी achhi” before “सुगन्ध SugaNDH”. “अच्छी achhii” means ‘good’ in the feminine form, and ‘सुगन्ध SugaNDH’ already means “good smell”, so “अच्छी सुगन्ध achhi SugaNDH” means ‘great smell’ or ‘strong aroma’.
Maya:For example “यहाँ चमेलीयों कि सुगन्ध आ रही है yahaan cameLiion ki acchii SugaNDH aa rahii hai” means ‘There’s a strong aroma of jasmine here’.
Udita:Okay, now let’s move on to grammar.

Lesson focus

Udita:In this lesson we will focus on using intransitive verbs in Hindi.
Maya:Most Hindi verbs come in pairs - transitive and intransitive. The most commonly used pair is of ‘करना karNaa’ and ‘होना hoNaa’. ‘करना karNaa’ means “to do” and ‘होना hoNaa’ means “to happen or become”.
Udita:Transitive verbs are verbs that require an obvious actor responsible for the action on an object. By contrast, intransitive verbs are used when things happen on their own or there is no actor specified. Most intransitive verbs can be derived from the transitive equivalent. Let’s take a look at how this is done.
Maya:As an example, ‘बनाना baNaaNaa’ means “to make”. This is a transitive verb because it requires an actor - Someone makes. To change this to intransitive, you simply remove the ‘aa’ vowel after the verb root so that - ‘बनाना baNaaNaa’ becomes ‘बनना baNNaa’, which means “to become made”.
Udita:This is not just a verb participle like its translation in English, but a verb of its own. We use it to talk about things becoming ready, like in food being cooked.
Maya:That’s right. For example चावल बन गयी है means “The rice is ready”.
Udita:Here are some example pairs of verbs. ‘गिराना giraaNaa’ means “to drop”, ‘गिरना girNaa’ means “to fall.
Maya:‘उठाना uthaaNaa’ means “to pick up or raise”, ‘उठना uthNaa’ means “to get up or rise”.
Udita:Right. Let’s try to use this. If “बढ़ाना barhaaNaa” means ‘to grow something’ such as hair, which is “बाल बढ़ाना baaL barhaaNaa”, what is the verb for “to grow” for self in the intransitive?
Maya:“बढ़ना badhNaa”. As in, “तुम्हारी मूछ बढ़ गयी Tumhaarii muuch badh gayii” which means “Your moustache has grown”.
Udita:Yes. Let’s try one the other way around. You probably know the transitive verb ‘चलना caLNaa’. It means “to walk or go ”. Maya, can you tell the listeners what the verb would be for making something walk or go?
Maya:It is “चलाना caLaaNaa”. This intransitive verb is used for driving a car which is “गाड़ी चलाना gaadii caLaaNaa” - this literally means ‘making a car go’.
Udita:Let’s look at the usage. “गाड़ी चल रही है gaadii caL rahii hai” uses the intransitive verb “चलना caLNaa”. This sentence means “The car is moving”. What do you think is the difference if we say “गाड़ी चला रही है gaadi caLaa rahii hai”?
Maya:That means “She is driving the car”. And it’s ‘she’ because the verb form ‘रही rahii’ is feminine, so we know the actor is a female. In the earlier sentence ‘रही rahii’ referred to the car which is a feminine noun in Hindi.
Udita:Right, since “चल रही है” uses the intransitive verb, we know that this is referring to the car, but “चला रही है” is transitive, so it refers to the person driving the car.
Maya:Right. And we can easily change most verbs from transitive to intransitive or vice versa in this way.
Udita:However, there are quite a few exceptions to how this is done. ‘जगाना jagaaNaa’ for example, means “to wake someone up”, but the transitive verb is not ‘जगना jagNaa’, it is “जागना jaagNaa” - to wake up.
Maya:Right, and ‘रोकना rokNaa’ means “to stop someone or something” but “to stop yourself or to pause” is रुकना rukNaa”.

Outro

Udita:Well that’s all we have for this lesson. We hope you enjoyed it!
Maya:Before we go, here’s one you can try on your own for practice. How would you say these 2 sentences in Hindi “She wrote the name”, and “She got the name written”? Remember that the verbs used in both are a transitive-intransitive pair!
Udita:Let us know your answer with a comment on HindiPod101.com!
Maya:And make sure you check out the examples and explanations in the lesson notes!
Udita:Thank you for listening. Until next time then!
Maya:Sukriyaa aur aLviDaa!

9 Comments

Hide
Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hello Listeners! Try making a sentence with the verb: बनना baNNaa ("to become made").

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 08:44 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Arpine,


Thanks for your post!


Your 1st two sentences are absolutely correct.


To answer your question, "write" here is connected to "name", which is treated as masculine in Hindi. So, it will always be लिखा (Likhaa), लिखवाया (Ljkhavaaya).


For the 3rd sentence, try this:

चाय बन गई है। आइए पीजिए।


For the 4th sentence, try this:

इस फ़िल्म को बनाने में बहुत ज़्यादा वक़्त लगा था।


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Arpine
Monday at 04:31 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

उसने अपना नाम लिखा। she wrote her name

उसने अपना नाम लिखवाया। she got her name written

One question, please. So even in the second sentence the gender of the verb has to be adjusted to नाम, and not the gender of the doer? I mean, लिखवायी would be wrong?

चाई बन्नी गई है, आइए पीजिए वो। tea is ready, please come drink it ???

यह फिल्म बहुत ज़्यादा वक्त में बन गई थी। This film required very long time to be made.

HindiPod101.com
Wednesday at 08:29 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Ian,


Nice work!


Just a few minor corrections in 2 of the sentences:

वह अपने लिए सब कुछ करवाती है। वह मालिक है! - She gets everything done for her. She’s the boss!

उसका जीवन बहुत बढ़िया है! - Her life is perfect! (This doesn't have "baNaa")


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 05:26 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Raj,


Thanks for your comment. Please make some small corrections, like


मेरी माँ आने वाली है, तो मुझे कुछ खास खाना बनाना है।


Please write to us if you have any question.


Cheers!


Prabhakar

Team HindiPod101.com

Raj Shah
Sunday at 10:36 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

मेरी मा अने वाली तो मुजे कुच कास खाना वानना है

Ian
Friday at 05:53 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

उसने नाम नहीं लिखा।

She didn’t write the name.

उसने नाम लिखवाया

She got the name written.

वह सब कुछ उसे लिए करवाता है। वह मालिक है!

She gets everything done for her. She’s the boss!

उसका जीवन बहुत बढ़िया बना है!

Her life is perfect!

HindiPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 10:15 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Namaste Anthony ji,


Hope you are doing well!


Please look at the corrections below:


वह नाम लिख बनी है।

Correct- usne naam likhwaaya

She got the name written.


इस होटल में मसालेदार और नमकीन खाना बनी है।

Correct- is hotal mein masaaleDaar aur namkeen khaana banTa hai

In this hotel (restaurant) spicy and salty food is made.


Cheers,

Neha

Team HindiPod101.com

Anthony Karan
Saturday at 11:32 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

नमस्ते नेहा जी!

Hello Neha ji!


इस ने नाम लिखा।

She wrote the name.


वह नाम लिख बनी है।

She got the name written.


इस होटल में मसालेदार और नमकीन खाना बनी है।

In this hotel (restaurant) spicy and salty food is made.


तभी तो बहुत लोग वहाँ शनिवार को जाते हैं।

That's why many people go there on Saturday.