Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Maya:“Namaste”, I’m Maya. Welcome to HindiPod101.com’s Beginner Series. This is Lesson 25 - Calling In Sick in India.
Udita:“Namaste”, I’m Udita. In this last lesson of the series, you’ll learn about using the Oblique forms further for sharing information.
Maya:The conversation takes place over the phone.
Udita:It’s between Priya and her boss.
Maya:Priya will be speaking in Polite Hindi. her boss will be speaking in Familiar Hindi.
Udita:Let’s listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
Priya:हेलो मैम, मैं प्रिया बोल रही हूँ. मेरी तबीयत बहुत खराब है तो आज काम पे नहीं आ पाऊंगी. (HeLLo Sar, main raajiiv boL rahaa huun. merii TabiiyaT bahuT kharaab hai To aaj kaam pe Nahiin aa paauuNgaa.)
Boss:अरे प्रिया, तुम्हे क्या हो गया? (are raajiiv, Tumhe kyaa ho gayaa?)
Priya:मैम कल रात से बहुत तेज़ बुखार है, और उतर भी नहीं रही है। (Sar kaL raaT Se bahuT tez bukhaar hai, aur uTar bhii Nahiin rahaa hai.)
Boss:दवाई ली है न? (Davaaii Lii hai Naa?)
Priya:ली थी, लेकिन अब डॉक्टर के पास जाऊँगी। (Lii THii, LekiN ab dauktar ke paaS jaauNgaa.)
Boss:ठीक है, कोई नहीं, तुम अपना ख़याल रखो. और आराम करो (thiik hai, koii Nahiin, Tum apNaa khayaaL rakho. aur aaraam karo.)
Maya: Now, let’s listen to the same conversation at a slow speed.
Priya:हेलो मैम, मैं प्रिया बोल रही हूँ. मेरी तबीयत बहुत खराब है तो आज काम पे नहीं आ पाऊंगी. (HeLLo Sar, main raajiiv boL rahaa huun. merii TabiiyaT bahuT kharaab hai To aaj kaam pe Nahiin aa paauuNgaa.)
Boss:अरे प्रिया, तुम्हे क्या हो गया? (are raajiiv, Tumhe kyaa ho gayaa?)
Priya:मैम कल रात से बहुत तेज़ बुखार है, और उतर भी नहीं रही है। (Sar kaL raaT Se bahuT tez bukhaar hai, aur uTar bhii Nahiin rahaa hai.)
Boss:दवाई ली है न? (Davaaii Lii hai Naa?)
Priya:ली थी, लेकिन अब डॉक्टर के पास जाऊँगी। (Lii THii, LekiN ab dauktar ke paaS jaauNgaa.)
Boss:ठीक है, कोई नहीं, तुम अपना ख़याल रखो. और आराम करो (thiik hai, koii Nahiin, Tum apNaa khayaaL rakho. aur aaraam karo.)
Maya: Let’s now listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Priya:हेलो मैम, मैं प्रिया बोल रही हूँ. मेरी तबीयत बहुत खराब है तो आज काम पे नहीं आ पाऊंगी. (HeLLo Sar, main raajiiv boL rahaa huun. merii TabiiyaT bahuT kharaab hai To aaj kaam pe Nahiin aa paauuNgaa.)
Priya: Hello, Maam, this is Priya. I am really sick today, so I won't be able to come to the office.
Boss:अरे प्रिया, तुम्हे क्या हो गया? (are raajiiv, Tumhe kyaa ho gayaa?)
Boss: Oh no, Priya, what happened to you?
Priya:मैम कल रात से बहुत तेज़ बुखार है, और उतर भी नहीं रही है। (Sar kaL raaT Se bahuT tez bukhaar hai, aur uTar bhii Nahiin rahaa hai.)
Priya: I have had a high fever since last night, and the temperature isn't decreasing.
Boss:दवाई ली है न? (Davaaii Lii hai Naa?)
Boss: Have you taken medicine?
Priya:ली थी, लेकिन अब डॉक्टर के पास जाऊँगी। (Lii THii, LekiN ab dauktar ke paaS jaauNgaa.)
Priya: Yes, I did, but I'll go to the doctor now.
Boss:ठीक है, कोई नहीं, तुम अपना ख़याल रखो. और आराम करो (thiik hai, koii Nahiin, Tum apNaa khayaaL rakho. aur aaraam karo.)
Boss: Okay, no problem. You take care of yourself and get some rest.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya:Let’s talk about offices in India.
Udita:The modern office environment is generally quite easy-going. People work hard in some companies depending on the job sector, but generally getting time off or leaving is not terribly difficult.
Maya:People still give a lot of importance to family life even in urban India in places where schedules are hectic. There is an understanding that family responsibilities are important.
Udita:Of course the environment can be very different depending on your area of work - for example a government job in the bureaucracy used to be considered the most laidback of jobs.
Maya:Yes, and banking jobs also used to be considered comfortable jobs, whereas now a job in the financial sector is as demanding as anywhere else in the world.
Udita:Yes, there are differences, but overall people are reasonable about expectations. It’s possible to explain to one’s boss that you need to take time off if your parents are unwell.
Maya:It also helps that there are so many festivals and national holidays! These are important occasions for Indians but also they help break up the work calendar thankfully.
Udita:That’s true. It’s difficult to compare work environments between countries, because daily life comes up with a different set of problems in urban India than in another country, but we can definitely agree that Indians prioritize family quite a bit overall.
Maya:Yes, as a general rule, it is the most important unit of identity in Indian society to date. OK, let’s move on to the vocab now.
VOCAB LIST
Maya: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Udita: काम पे आना (kaam pe aaNaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: to come to work
Udita: काम पे आना (kaam pe aaNaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: काम पे आना (kaam pe aaNaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: ख़राब (kharaab) [natural native speed]
Maya: bad
Udita: ख़राब (kharaab) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: ख़राब (kharaab) [natural native speed]
Udita: बुखार (bukhaar) [natural native speed]
Maya: fever
Udita: बुखार (bukhaar) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: बुखार (bukhaar) [natural native speed]
Udita: तेज़ (Tez) [natural native speed]
Maya: high, fast
Udita: तेज़ (Tez) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: तेज़ (Tez) [natural native speed]
Udita: आराम (aaraam) [natural native speed]
Maya: rest
Udita: आराम (aaraam) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: आराम (aaraam) [natural native speed]
Udita: उतरना (uTarNaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: to get off, to get down from, to descend, to decrease
Udita: उतरना (uTarNaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: उतरना (uTarNaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: ख़याल (khayaaL) [natural native speed]
Maya: care
Udita: ख़याल (khayaaL) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: ख़याल (khayaaL) [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Maya:Now let’s take a closer look at some of the words and phrases used.
Udita:The first word is “kharaab” which means “bad”. It also means “ruined” and other similar qualities.
Maya:For example, we can say “कपड़े ख़राब हो गए kapde kharaab ho gae” which means “My clothes got dirty”.
Udita:It is generally used for things in a bad condition, such as ‘pet kharaab’ which means “upset stomach”.
Maya:The next is the verb “uTarNaa”. It means “to come down” or “to decline”.
Udita:It is an intransitive verb, so you can use it in the circumstances “I came down” or “it came down”.
Maya:This is a verb used for the regular physical action and also in metaphors. For example ‘Nasaa uTarNaa’ is used to describe the process of sobering up.
Udita:Let’s break it down. The first word 'Nasaa' means intoxication, and the verb "uTarNaa" "to decrease". Together, we translate them as "to sober up".
Maya:The word ‘NaSaa’ means “intoxication”, which is unique to Hindi and Urdu.
Udita:If you want to say “I sobered up” you would say indirectly “merii Nasaa uTar gayii” which literally means ‘my intoxication came down’.
Maya:There are some special uses, such as for fever going away as we heard in the conversation, which is “bukhaar uTarNaa”.
Udita:The next word is “khayaaL” which means “care” and “thought”.
Maya:A common use is when asking someone’s opinion - “What do you think?” for a suggested activity, where we say “क्या ख़याल है? kyaa khayaaL hai?”
Udita:The most common way of saying “Take care of yourself” in Hindi is “apNaa khayaaL rakhNaa”. ‘KhayaaL’ is both “care” and “consideration”.
Maya:It is used with the verbs “hoNaa”, “rakhNaa” and “aaNaa’, and it is used with possessive pronouns so that ‘care of me’ is “meraa khayaaL” and ‘care of her’ is “uSkaa khayaaL”.
Udita:Right and the meaning depends a little bit on the context. If you say “uSkaa khayaaL rakho” then it means “Take care of her” but if you said “Tumhe uSkaa khayaaL Nahiin aayaa?” then it means “You didn’t think of her?”
Maya:That’s right. Now let’s move on to the grammar.

Lesson focus

Maya:In this lesson we’re taking a closer look at oblique pronouns and their usage. You learned how to construct them earlier. Here we will explore when they need to be used.
Udita:आपको/तुम्हे/तुझे "Aapko/Tumhe/Tujhe" are used when “you” are the object upon which the action is being done. “ko” is the object marker particle.
Maya:Yes, the particle is not used with the pronouns when a person is the subject doing the action.
Udita:For example उसने तुम्हे चाय दिया? - Here the sentence means ‘Did he give you tea?”. There are 2 pronouns being used - “uSNe” for “he” and “Tumhe” for “you”. “you” is the object here because tea is given to “you”, so instead of adding “ko”, the pronoun “Tum” is changed to “Tumhe”.
Maya:Right, and the subject marker particle is “Ne” which is used with “vo” in its oblique form “uS”.
Udita:Indirect speech functions differently in Hindi. Many regular verbs are used in indirect forms in Hindi.
Maya:For example, "Do you know?" in English is an active question where a person is addressed directly. But in Hindi it would be said indirectly, in this sort of way "Is (it) known to you?".
Udita:Thus to say “Do you know?” in Hindi, it will be "आपको पता है? aapako paTaa hai?".
Maya:In the Familiar level it is “Tumhe paTaa hai?” and in the informal Intimate level it is “Tujhe paTaa hai?”
Udita:The first person oblique forms are ‘Mujhe or Hamen”.
Maya:Indirect speech is used very often to talk about inability. For example, to ask "Can you sing?" the Hindi sentence commonly used would be " Tumhe gaaNaa aaTaa hai?” or “aapko gaaNaa aaTaa hai?".
Udita:This means "Are you able to sing?" and the intransitive verb “aaNaa” is used. What it means is “Can you sing?” but is stated passively.
Maya:When someone is being asked about talent or skill, the question is usually phrased indirectly in this way, but if you assert that someone is talented, then you will switch to a direct and active voice.
Udita:That’s right. So you might ask “Tumhe khaaNaa pakaaNaa aaTaa hai?” which means ‘Do you know how to cook?’ but if you wanted to say “She cooks very well” you should say “ये बहुत अच्छा खाना बनाती है| which is direct and uses the transitive verb “baNaaNaa”, meaning “to make”.
Maya:The same is also used when showing sympathy, as in the conversation when the Boss asks तुम्हे क्या हो गया? meaning 'what happened to you?'.
Udita:Similarly to ask 'Did you understand?', the sentence is framed as "Were you able to understand?" in Hindi. So you say “Tumhe Samajh aayaa?” which literally means "Did it come to your understanding?"
Maya:The object marker particle “ko” is used in these situations, or the pronouns where “ko” is combined such as “mujhe, hamen, tujhe, tumhe, uSe and uNhe”
Udita:For example, ‘gave you’, ‘taught you’, ‘showed you’ -- these are all occasions where this oblique form will be used.
Maya:‘Gave you” is “Tumhe Diyaa”, “taught you’ is “Tumhe Sikhaayaa” and ‘showed you’ is “Tumhe Dikhaayaa”.
Udita:In the first person with the same verbs we’d say “mujhe Diyaa”, “mujhe Sikhayaa” and “mujhe Dikhaayaa”.
Maya:And in the third person ‘he’ or ‘she’ are the same so “uSe Diyaa”, “uSe Sikhaayaa” and “uSe Sikhaayaa”.
Udita:Right and for the Polite level it will be “uNhe”.

Outro

Maya:Well, that’s all we have for this lesson, and for this series. I hope you enjoyed it, and found it useful.
Udita:As always, make sure you check out the lesson notes for more examples!
Udita:Thank you for listening everyone. We’ll see you in another series.
Maya:sukriyaa aur aLvidaa!

7 Comments

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HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hello Listeners! तुम्हे खाना पकाना आता है?


Dan
Saturday at 04:10 AM
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हाँ, मुझे कुछ खाना पकाना आता है :)


PS the audio at 09:30 - 09:51 is a repeat of the audio at 09:08 - 09:30. (Let me know if there's a better way for me to send this feedback than in the comments!)

WANG YI LAN
Saturday at 10:11 PM
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उतर भी नहीं raha है 😈😈😈

HindiPod101.com
Wednesday at 08:04 PM
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Hi Ian,


That is perfect!


Keep learning. You are doing great.


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com



Ian
Friday at 08:39 AM
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जी नहीं, मुझे खाना पकाना नहीं आता।

No, I don’t know how to cook.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 09:16 AM
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Hello Anthony!


That is so true, one gets to learn how to cook as meals can cost a lot in foreign countries:grin:


Cheers,

Neha

Team HindiPod101.com

Anthony
Wednesday at 07:01 PM
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हाँ, मुझे खाना पकाना आता है।

Yes, I know how to cook.


जब मैं दूसरे देशों में रहता था, मुझे खाना पकाना सीखना था क्योंकि मेरे लिये रेस्टोरंट खाने का दाम बहुत महंगा था।

When I used to live in other countries, I had to learn how to cook because the price of the restaurant food was very expensive.