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Lesson Transcript

Neha: "Namaste", I'm Neha.
Maya: "Namaste", I'm Maya. Absolute Beginner Season 1, Lesson 2, Simple Greetings in Hindi, Part 2.
Neha: In this lesson you`ll learn how to ask "How are you?" in Hindi.
Maya: The conversation takes place on a street.
Neha: It's between Kamala and Mahima who are neighbors.
Maya: They are formal acquaintances and so they'll be using formal Hindi. Let's listen to their conversation.

Lesson conversation

महिमा: कमलाजी! आप कैसी हैं?
कमला: अरे महिमाजी! मैं बिल्कुल ठीक हूँ। और आप कैसी हैं?
महिमा: मैं भी ठीक हूँ, धन्यवाद।
कमला: आपका बेटा कैसे है?
महिमा: वह बहुत अच्छा है, धन्यवाद।
Neha: Now let's listen to the same conversation at a slow speed.
Mahimaa: Kamalaajii! Aap kaisee hain?
Kamalaa: Are Mahimajii ! Main bilkul theek hoon. Aur aap kaisee hain?
Mahimaa: Main bhee theek hoon, dhanyavaaD.
Kamalaa: Aapkaa betaa kaisa hai?
Mahimaa: Vah bahuT acchaa hai, dhanyavaaD.
Maya: Let's now listen to it with English translation.
Mahimaa: "Kamalaajii! Aap kaisee hain?"
Neha: "Kamala! How are you?"
Kamalaa: "Are Mahimajii ! Main bilkul theek hoon. Aur aap kaisee hain?"
Maya: "Oh Mahima! I am quite well. And how are you?"
Mahimaa: "Main bhee theek hoon, dhanyavaaD."
Neha: "I am also good, thank you."
Kamalaa: "Aapkaa betaa kaisa hai?"
Maya: "How is your son?"
Mahimaa: "Vah bahuT acchaa hai, dhanyavaaD."
Neha: "He is very good, thank you."
Maya: You know, Hindi can be a bit difficult for English speakers since all nouns in Hindi are either masculine or feminine.
Neha: And just like in French and Arabic, the sentence structure changes accordingly.
Maya: Yes, so some verbs and adjectives change according to the gender of their nouns, that is whether they are masculine or feminine and also according to their number, that is whether they are one or many.
Neha: That`s right.
Maya: And possessive pronouns like "my" and "your" change according to the gender and the number of the thing being possessed and not the subject doing the possessing.
Neha: If this went over your head, don't worry about it.
Maya: We'll cover them one by one in our lessons, but for now the only thing you have to keep in mind is that it is very important to know is the gender of the nouns if you want to speak Hindi correctly!
Neha: That`s right.
Maya: OK, let`s move onto the vocab.
Maya: The first we shall see is....
Neha: aap
Maya: you, formal
Neha: aap
Maya: Next is...
Neha: kaisee
Maya: how, female
Neha: kaisee
Maya: Next is...
Neha: hain
Maya: are, infinitive, to be
Neha: hain
Maya: Next is...
Neha: main
Maya: I
Neha: main
Maya: Next is...
Neha: theek
Maya: OK
Neha: theek
Maya: Next is...
Neha: hoon
Maya: am, infinitive, to be
Neha: hoon
Maya: Next is...
Neha: dhanyavaad
Maya: thank you
Neha: dhanyavaad
Maya: Next is...
Neha: betaa
Maya: son
Neha: betaa
Maya: Next is...
Neha: bahut achhaa
Maya: very good
Neha: bahut achhaa
Maya: Last is...
Neha: avoh
Maya: "he", "she", "it", "that".
Neha: voh
Maya: Let`s have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Maya: Let's start with the word that's most fresh in our memory. The last word we covered was...
Neha: वह "voh".
Maya: "Voh" is a third person singular pronoun that means "he/she/it or that".
Neha: It is used for people and things that are further away, whereas यह "yeh" is used for people and things that are closer and it means "he/she/it/ or this".
Maya: You're saying that वह "voh" and यह "yeh" are both "he" and "she"?
Neha: Yes.
Maya: Well, that sounds complicated.
Neha: Well, it's not really all that complicated. We'll soon learn how to look at other things like the verb and adjective to figure out whether it's referring to a guy or a girl. But more on that later.
Maya: Okay then, the next word we'll look at is…
Neha: धन्यवाद "dhanyavaad".
Maya: Which is "thank you". It is a very useful word to know.
Neha: Very. And there are other ways you can say "thank you" in Hindi.
Maya: Yes, you can also say शुक्रिया "shukriya".
Neha: Listen and repeat, " shukriyaa".
Maya: You can use "dhanyavaad" and "shurkiyaa" interchangeably. OK, onto the grammar!

Lesson focus

Maya: The focus of this lesson is to learn about..
Neha: हैं "hain"
Maya: which means "are".
Neha: And also to learn how to ask "How are you?" in Hindi. We'll cover only the formal way of asking.
Maya: Which is..
Neha: "Aap kaisee hain..."
Maya: If you're asking a female.
Neha:' "Aap kaisaa hain..."
Maya: If you're asking a male, and finally...
Neha: "Aap sab kaise hain..."
Maya: If you're asking many people at once.
Neha: Let's break it down a bit. Here, "Aap" is a formal "you", "kaisee" or "kaise" means "how" and "hain" means "are".
Maya: So literally, what we're saying is "You how are?" and that translates as "How are you?".
Neha: You can see that Hindi is a verb final language and follows the subject, object, verb order. Let's go over it one more time.
Maya: Sure, so what would you say if you wanted to ask Emily "How are you?"?
Neha: Since Emily is a girl, we'd use the feminine case for "how", which is kaisee...so we'd say, "Aap kaisee hain?".
Maya: Listen and repeat.
Neha: "Aap kaisee hain".
Maya: What would you say if you wanted to ask Tom, "How are you?".
Neha: So Tom is a guy, which means we'd have to use the masculine case for "how", which is "kaise"...so we'd say: "aap kaise hain?"
Maya: "Aap kaise hain."
Neha: Yes, very good.
Maya: The verb "hain", which means "are", sounds a lot like the verb " hai", which means "is". The difference between them is that "hain", or "are", is nasalized while "hai", or "is", is not nasalized.
Neha: Yes. Let's do one more example. So, listeners, how would you say, "How is she?" in Hindi?
Maya: Well, first of all you'd need to know what "she" is in Hindi. We've gone over this in the beginning of this lesson. It is वह "voh.".
Neha: Next, you need to know the feminine case for "how", which is............"kaisee".
Maya: Finally, all you need is the verb "is," which is "hai".....not nasalized.
Neha: So so we have, "voh kaisee hai?"
Maya: "How is she?"
Neha: The general rule is subject plus "+ kaisaa" or "kaisee" plus+ "hai" or "hain".
Maya: With the formal "you", that is "aap", it's always " aap" plus+ "kaisaa" or "kaisee" plus+ "hain".
Neha: With he or she, that is "voh", it's always " voh" plus "+kaisaa", or "kaisee" plus+ "hai".
Maya: If you want to use a person's name instead just use that for the subject. So to ask, "How is Tom?", you'd say..,
Neha: "Tom kaisaa hai?"
Maya: So listeners, can you now ask anybody how they are doing in Hindi?
Neha: Yes, you can! That's all for this lesson. In the lesson notes, you can find more examples and explanations for this topic, so be sure to read them!
Maya: Yes. Among other things, we also cover how to ask the same thing in casual and intimate forms in Hindi.
Neha: Thank you for listening,
Maya: Until next time!
Neha: "Shukriyaa aur fir milenge!"


Please to leave a comment.
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HindiPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 06:30 PM
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Hello HindiPod101.com listeners!

How are you today?

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 12:44 PM
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Hi Raluca,

Thanks for your question!

"kaiSe" is used when you are talking about more than one person or when you are trying to be respectful to the person.

For example, if you are asking your friend how is his/her father is doing, and want to be respectful towards the father, you can say "वे कैसे हैं?" (ve kaiSe hain?) or "वो कैसे हैं?" (vo kaiSe hain?)

But if you are asking about the younger brother of that friend, and in your opinion, showing respect isn't necessary, you can say "वह कैसा है?" (vah kaiSaa hai?) "वो कैसा है?" (vo kaiSaa hai?)

I hope this helps!


Team HindiPod101.com

Friday at 06:07 AM
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Namaste! I have a question similar to the previous lesson: why is used kaisaa with he and not kaise since he is masculine?Examples of कैसी (kaisii) and कैसे (kaise)

1.वह कैसा है?

Wah kaisaa hai?

"How is he?"

Thank you.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 10:37 PM
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Hi Ikram and Preethi,

Thanks for your post!

Seems like both of you have the same question.

"vah" (वह) is used for "he/she". "ve" (वे) is used for "they". "vo" (वो) is generally used in conversational Hindi for both singular and plural pronouns. This means that in a conversation you can say "vo kahaan hai?" (वो कहाँ है?) to say "Where is he/she?". Or you can say "vo kahaan hain?" (वो कहाँ हैं?) to say "Where are they?" But grammatically correct written Hindi is "vah kahaan hai?" (वह कहाँ है?) for "Where is he/she?" and "ve kahaan hain?" (वे कहाँ हैं?) for "Where are they?"

I hope this helps!


Team HindiPod101.com

Wednesday at 06:28 PM
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What is the difference between "voh" and "wah"

Ikram Khan
Tuesday at 12:08 AM
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Can you please explain the "voh" and "vaha"? am confused with it.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 09:05 PM
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Hi Harsha,

Thanks for your post!

"biLkuL" (बिल्कुल) means "absolutely" or "surely" or "definitely", depending on the context.

I hope this helps!


Team HindiPod101.com

Harsha Padma S
Saturday at 04:33 PM
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what is meant by "bilkul"?

HindiPod101.com Verified
Friday at 05:31 AM
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नमस्ते (Namaste) Donald,

Could you please tell us what you disliked about the lesson?

लेवेन्टे (Levente)

Team HindiPod101.com

Donald D Jackson
Monday at 08:07 AM
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could have been better


HindiPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 12:34 PM
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Hi Yogashree,

Thanks for your question!

For "how is she", please use any one:

"vo kaiSii hai?" (वो कैसी है?)

"vo kaiSii hain?" (वो कैसी हैं?) (by changing "hai" to "hain" you are showing respect to the person you are asking about)

I hope this helps!


Team HindiPod101.com