Dialogue - Hindi

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Vocabulary

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वक्त vakT time, moment
दर्द DarD pain
दवाई लेना Davaaii LeNaa to take medicine
नहाना nahana to take a bath or a shower
चोट लगना cot LagNaa to get hurt
अब ab now
आराम aaraam rest
फिसलना phiSaLNaa to slip on (something)
शुकर है sukar hai thank goodness
बाद baaD after, later

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus of this Lesson is How to Use the Word कैसे kaiSe Meaning "how" in Hindi.
आप कैसे हैं?
aap kaiSe hain?

"How are you?
"

 




kaiSe means "how" in Hindi. There are three forms of the word: the subject determines which is used. For example, if the subject is feminine then the word will be kaiSii, if it is male, the word will be kaiSaa, but if it is in the plural or requires respect (when addressing an elder) then the word kaiSe will be used.

 

For example, DarD is a masculine word in Hindi, so kaiSaa will be used. When using formal Hindi, kaiSe goes with aap.

For example:

  1. अब पैर का दर्द कैसा है?
    Ab pair ka DarD kaiSaa hai
    "How is the pain in your leg now?"
  2. आप कैसे गिरे?
    aap kaiSe gire?
    "How did you fall?"

As a general rule, kaiSe comes right between the subject (or object in the passive voice) and the verb in a question and exclamation, thus:

[subject/object] kaiSe [verb]

For example:

  1. आप दोनों कैसे मिले?
    aap DoNon kaiSe miLe?
    "How did you two meet?" [active]
  2. ये दवाई कैसे लेनी चाहिए?
    ye Davaaii kaiSe LeNii chaahiye
    "How should this medicine be taken?" [passive]

Another specific use of the word is in asking about liking. In common speech we say kaiSi Lagii? Literally, it sounds like "How did it feel?" or "How did you find it?" but actually the meaning is "Do you like it?"

Another use of kaiSe to say "by whatever means" : kaiSe bhii karke - "in whatever manner," "somehow"

For example:

kaiSe bhii karke mujhe ghar jaaNaa hai - "I have to get home somehow."

Cultural Insights

Medicinal Practices


 

Generally, hospital and medicinal terms in India are known by their English names to the average person, but there is also an alternative branch of traditional medicine known as Ayurveda (pronounced aayurveDaa) based on the knowledge of natural herbs, spices and processes. Ayurveda is an ancient stream of medicine, passed down through generation after generation of traditional doctors, which encompasses a vast knowledge of herbal medicines and combinations, but also other practices used to treat ailments that are unknown to modern medicine. Ayurveda has seen a revival in the past three decades due to emerging evidence showing benefits from the practices, previously discarded as mere primitive rituals.

Lesson Transcript

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INTRODUCTION
Maya: "Namaste", I'm Maya, and welcome to HindiPod101.com’s Beginner Season 1, Lesson 1 - Going to an Indian Hospital.
Udita: "Namaste, I'm Udita. In this lesson, you’ll review how to ask questions using "kaiSe", which means “How” in Hindi, to make an enquiry.
Maya: This conversation takes place in the hospital.
Udita: Kate and Sunita are friends, and Sunita is admitted in a hospital.
Maya: They will be speaking in familiar terms but Sunita is older, so Kate will address Sunita formally.
Udita: Let’s listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
Kate: आप कैसे हैं अब? (aap kaiSe hain ab?)
Sunita: दवाई ली है तो इस वक्त दर्द नहीं है (Davaai Lii hai To iS vakT DarD Nahiin hai.)
Kate: ये कैसे हुआ? (ye kaiSe huaa?)
Sunita: नहाने के बाद पानी पे फिसलकर चोट लग गयी (NahaaNe ke baaD paaNii pe phiSaLkar cot Lag gayii.)
Kate: शुकर है की फ्रैक्चर नहीं हुआ. अब कुछ दिन आपको अच्छे से आराम तो मिलेगी. (sukar hai kii fraikcar Nahiin huaa. ab kuch DiN aapko acche Se aaraam To miLegii.)
Sunita: हाँ कैसी भी हो, बहुत दिनों बाद छुट्टी मिल रही है. (haan kaiSii bhi ho, bahuT DiNon baaD chutti To miLNevaaLii hai.)
Maya: Now, let’s listen to the same conversation at a slow speed.
Kate: आप कैसे हैं अब? (aap kaiSe hain ab?)
Sunita: दवाई ली है तो इस वक्त दर्द नहीं है (Davaai Lii hai To iS vakT DarD Nahiin hai.)
Kate: ये कैसे हुआ? (ye kaiSe huaa?)
Sunita: नहाने के बाद पानी पे फिसलकर चोट लग गयी (NahaaNe ke baaD paaNii pe phiSaLkar cot Lag gayii.)
Kate: शुकर है की फ्रैक्चर नहीं हुआ. अब कुछ दिन आपको अच्छे से आराम तो मिलेगी. (sukar hai kii fraikcar Nahiin huaa. ab kuch DiN aapko acche Se aaraam To miLegii.)
Sunita: हाँ कैसी भी हो, बहुत दिनों बाद छुट्टी मिल रही है. (haan kaiSii bhi ho, bahuT DiNon baaD chutti To miLNevaaLii hai.)
Maya: Let’s now listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Kate: आप कैसे हैं अब? (aap kaiSe hain ab?)
Kate: How are you now?
Sunita: दवाई ली है तो इस वक्त दर्द नहीं है (Davaai Lii hai To iS vakT DarD Nahiin hai.)
Sunita: I've taken the medicine so I'm not in any pain right now.
Kate: ये कैसे हुआ? (ye kaiSe huaa?)
Kate: How did this happen?
Sunita: नहाने के बाद पानी पे फिसलकर चोट लग गयी (NahaaNe ke baaD paaNii pe phiSaLkar cot Lag gayii.)
Sunita: After showering, I slipped on some water and hurt myself.
Kate: शुकर है की फ्रैक्चर नहीं हुआ. अब कुछ दिन आपको अच्छे से आराम तो मिलेगी. (sukar hai kii fraikcar Nahiin huaa. ab kuch DiN aapko acche Se aaraam To miLegii.)
Kate: Thank goodness there is no bone fracture. Now you can get some good rest for a few days.
Sunita: हाँ कैसी भी हो, बहुत दिनों बाद छुट्टी मिल रही है. (haan kaiSii bhi ho, bahuT DiNon baaD chutti To miLNevaaLii hai.)
Sunita: That's true, no matter what, at least I am getting a holiday after a long time!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya: Speaking of medicines in India, have you heard of Ayurveda?
Udita: Yes it’s become quite well-known recently hasn't it?
Maya: Right, it has come back in the last 20 years. Before that, a lot of traditional practices were discarded as primitive rituals.
Udita: But Ayurveda has existed for many hundreds of years.
Maya: That’s right, it’s traditional medicine that relies on the knowledge of natural herbs and spices, and understanding how they combine.
Udita: Right, I've heard a lot about herbal medicines. Have they been researched recently too?
Maya: Well scientists are now finding a lot of important uses for these, from basic anesthetics to cancer treatment.
Udita: Are there books available on Ayurveda?
Maya: Yes, there have been some published in recent times. In the past, people may have made notes on the practices, but it’s quite an ancient stream of medicine. A lot of information about it has passed down verbally through the generations.
Udita: Well it´s great if we can apply Ayurveda more thoroughly to medicine. With natural treatments, there can be fewer side effects.
Maya: Right, and Ayurveda treats all human bodies individually, so those differences can be understood.
Udita: I think that should be important in diagnosing and giving medication.
VOCAB LIST
Maya: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Udita: अब (ab) [natural native speed]
Maya: now
Udita: अब (ab)[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: अब (ab)[natural native speed]
Udita: दवाई लेना (Davaaii LeNaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: to take medicine
Udita: दवाई लेना (Davaaii LeNaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: दवाई लेना (Davaaii LeNaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: वक्त (vakT) [natural native speed]
Maya: time, moment
Udita: वक्त (vakT) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: वक्त (vakT) [natural native speed]
Udita: दर्द (DarD) [natural native speed]
Maya: pain
Udita: दर्द (DarD) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: दर्द (DarD) [natural native speed]
Udita: नहाना (nahana) [natural native speed]
Maya: to take a bath or a shower
Udita: नहाना (nahana) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: नहाना (nahana) [natural native speed]
Udita: बाद (baaD) [natural native speed]
Maya: after, later
Udita: बाद (baaD) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: बाद (baaD) [natural native speed]
Udita: फिसलना (phiSaLNaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: to slip on (something)
Udita: फिसलना (phiSaLNaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: फिसलना (phiSaLNaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: चोट लगना (cot LagNaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: to get hurt
Udita: चोट लगना (cot LagNaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: चोट लगना (cot LagNaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: शुकर है (sukar hai) [natural native speed]
Maya: thank goodness
Udita: शुकर है (sukar hai) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: शुकर है (sukar hai) [natural native speed]
Udita: आराम (aaraam) [natural native speed]
Maya: rest
Udita: आराम (aaraam) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: आराम (aaraam) [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Maya: Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Udita: First up is ‘Davaai LeNaa’, which means “to take medicine”. ‘Davaai’ is medicine, and ‘LeNaa’ means “to take”. That’s the verb used for consuming medicine in Hindi. This is true for any kind of medicine, liquid or pills.
Maya: So if you say ‘main Davaai LeNaa bhuuL gayii’ if you’re female or ‘gayaa’ if you’re a man, that means “I forgot to take to my medicine”.
Udita: And if I wanted to check on you, I would say “TumNe vakT pe Davaaii Lii THii?”. “vakT pe” means “on time”, so this means “Did you take your medicine on time?.”
Maya: The next word is ‘DarD’. This means “pain” and it’s a noun.
Udita: This word can be used literally for physical pain, but also emotional. It’s different from “to ache”, which is “duukNaa” in Hindi.
Maya: The exception is “headache” which translates to “Sar DarD” in Hindi, even though that is an ache in English. For example, ‘haaTH ke cot kaa DarD kam huaa?’ will mean “Has the pain from your arm injury lessened?.”
Udita: Next we have ‘NahaaNaa’ which is a verb meaning “to shower or bathe”.
Maya: This word actually covers all acts of washing yourself, even though it’s associated more with showering. There is no separate word for ‘taking a bath’.
Udita: This word is sometimes used alongside ‘DHoNaa’ which means “to clean”. For example, you might hear someone say ‘aap Nahaa DHoke aa jaao’. This means “Go ahead and take a shower, clean up, and then come.”.
Maya: A simple example is “vo abhii Nahaa rahe hain”. Now “vo” is a gender neutral pronoun, so it can mean ‘he’ or ‘she’. Let’s go with ‘she’ here for the example, so the meaning is “She is in the shower right now”. Ok, now let’s move on to the grammar.

Lesson focus

Udita: In this lesson we’re going to learn how to use the word कैसे ʺkaiSeʺ meaning “how” in Hindi.
Maya: As we said, ‘kaiSe’ means “how” in Hindi. The feminine form is ʺkaiSiiʺ. If it is masculine, the word will be ʺkaiSaaʺ. If the subject is in the plural, or if you’re using formal Hindi to address a person, then the word ʺkaiSeʺ will be used.
Udita: Right, and this will depend on the subject that ‘kaiSe’ is referring to.
Maya: The noun “pain” or ‘DarD’ is masculine in Hindi so you would use the masculine form. अब पैर का दर्द कैसा है? Ab pair ka dard kaiSaa hai - “How is the pain in your leg now?".
Udita: Also, when you’re speaking respectfully, using “aap” for “you”, “kaiSe” is better.
Maya: Right, that’s why in the conversation earlier we heard Kate say “aap kaiSe hain ab?”
Udita: Yes. As a rule, the word usually comes after the subject, and before the verb.
Maya: Okay, so if I wanted to ask “How did you two meet?”- “you two” would be “aap DoNo”, and “did meet” is “miLein”. So it would be “aap DoNon kaiSe miLein?”
Udita: Exactly. Now with passive voice, the order is the same as well.
Maya: Okay. Let’s try it. You want to say “How should this medicine be taken?”
Udita: Right. So the object is “this medicine”, which is “ye Davaai”.
Maya: Yes, and “should be taken” is ‘LeNii caahiye’.
Udita: Okay, so it will be “ye Davaai kaiSe LeNii caahiye?”
Maya: Yes, perfect!
Udita: Great. There are also some specific uses of “kaiSe”, “kaiSaa”, and “kaiSii”.
Maya: One of them is for asking about liking. In common speech, people will say “KaiSi Lagii?” This translates directly to “How did it feel?” or “How was the experience?” but actually it means “Do you like it?”
Udita: Yes, so if I gave you a birthday present, I may ask you after you take a look, “KaiSii Lagii?” or “KaiSaa Lagaa?”. I would be asking for your reaction to my present.
Maya: That’s right.
Udita: One other common use is the phrase ‘kaiSe bhii karke’ which means “by whatever means” or “in whichever way”. It’s also similar to “somehow”.
Maya: Right, for example, “kaiSe bhii karke mujhe ghar jaaNaa hai”.
Udita: “ghar jaaNaa hai” means “I have to get home”.
Maya: So the full sentence means “I have to get home somehow.”
Udita: That’s right.

Outro

Udita: Well, that’s all for our lesson.
Maya: Be sure to read the lesson notes for more examples.
Thanks for listening, everyone! Until next time!
Udita: “aLviDaa!”