Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Maya: "Namaste," I'm Maya, and welcome back to HindiPod101.com’s Beginner Series. This is Season 1, Lesson 10 - A Hindi Invitation.
Udita: "Namaste, I’m Udita in Hindi". In this lesson, you’ll learn about invitations in spoken Hindi.
Maya: The conversation takes place outside a house.
Udita: It’s between two neighbours, who are also friends.
Maya: Since they are friends, they will be using informal Hindi.
Udita: Let’s listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
A:अलका, अगले शनिवार को मेरे भाई की मंगनी तय हुई है। तुम अओगी न? (aLakaa, agaLe saNivaar ko mere bhaaii kii mangaNii Tay huyii hai. Tum aaogii Na?)
B:अगले शनिवार? हाँ ज़रूर. कौन कौन आ रहा है? (agLe saNivaar? haan zaruur. kauN kauN aa rahaa hai?)
A:हमारे करीब के रिश्तेदार - चाचा,चाची, मामा, मामी, मौसी, मौसा, और उनके परिवार, फिर - यहाँ के पड़ोसी, और भैया के और मेरे दोस्त. (hamaare kariib ke risTeDaar - caacaa, caacii, maamaa, maamii, mauSii, mauSaa, aur uNke parivaar, phir yaahaan padoSii, aur bhaiyaa aur mere DoST.)
B:अच्छा. मैं बधाई देने ज़रूर आऊंगी. तुम्हारे भाभी के परिवार से कोई नहीं आ रहा? (acchaa. main baDHaaii DeNe zaruur aauuNgii. Tumhaare bhaabhii ke parivaar Se koii Nahiin aa rahaa?)
A:अरे हाँ. भाभी की परिवार भी आएगी लेकिन तीन लोग.(are haan, bhaabhi kii parivaar bhi aayegii LekiN Tiin Log.)
B:ऐसा क्यूँ? (aiSaa kyun?)
A:उनके रिश्तेदार सब कर्णाटक में रहते हैं तो दूरी कुछ ज़्यादा है. (uNke risTeDaar Sab karnaatak mein rahTe hain To Duurii kuch zyaaDaa hai.)
Maya: Now, let’s listen to the same conversation at a slow speed.
A:अलका, अगले शनिवार को मेरे भाई की मंगनी तय हुई है। तुम अओगी न? (aLakaa, agaLe saNivaar ko mere bhaaii kii mangaNii Tay huyii hai. Tum aaogii Na?)
B:अगले शनिवार? हाँ ज़रूर. कौन कौन आ रहा है? (agLe saNivaar? haan zaruur. kauN kauN aa rahaa hai?)
A:हमारे करीब के रिश्तेदार - चाचा,चाची, मामा, मामी, मौसी, मौसा, और उनके परिवार, फिर - यहाँ के पड़ोसी, और भैया के और मेरे दोस्त. (hamaare kariib ke risTeDaar - caacaa, caacii, maamaa, maamii, mauSii, mauSaa, aur uNke parivaar, phir yaahaan padoSii, aur bhaiyaa aur mere DoST.)
B:अच्छा. मैं बधाई देने ज़रूर आऊंगी. तुम्हारे भाभी के परिवार से कोई नहीं आ रहा? (acchaa. main baDHaaii DeNe zaruur aauuNgii. Tumhaare bhaabhii ke parivaar Se koii Nahiin aa rahaa?)
A:अरे हाँ. भाभी की परिवार भी आएगी लेकिन तीन लोग.(are haan, bhaabhi kii parivaar bhi aayegii LekiN Tiin Log.)
B:ऐसा क्यूँ? (aiSaa kyun?)
A:उनके रिश्तेदार सब कर्णाटक में रहते हैं तो दूरी कुछ ज़्यादा है. (uNke risTeDaar Sab karnaatak mein rahTe hain To Duurii kuch zyaaDaa hai.)
Maya: Let’s now listen to the conversation with the English translation.
A:अलका, अगले शनिवार को मेरे भाई की मंगनी तय हुई है। तुम अओगी न? (aLakaa, agaLe saNivaar ko mere bhaaii kii mangaNii Tay huyii hai. Tum aaogii Na?)
A:Alka, my brother's engagement ceremony has been fixed for next Saturday. You can come right?
B:अगले शनिवार? हाँ ज़रूर. कौन कौन आ रहा है? (agLe saNivaar? haan zaruur. kauN kauN aa rahaa hai?)
B:Next Saturday? Yes, of course I will. Who'll be attending?
A:हमारे करीब के रिश्तेदार - चाचा,चाची, मामा, मामी, मौसी, मौसा, और उनके परिवार, फिर - यहाँ के पड़ोसी, और भैया के और मेरे दोस्त. (hamaare kariib ke risTeDaar - caacaa, caacii, maamaa, maamii, mauSii, mauSaa, aur uNke parivaar, phir yaahaan padoSii, aur bhaiyaa aur mere DoST.)
A:Our close relatives—uncles, aunts, their families, our neighbors here, and my brother's and my friends.
B:अच्छा. मैं बधाई देने ज़रूर आऊंगी. तुम्हारे भाभी के परिवार से कोई नहीं आ रहा? (acchaa. main baDHaaii DeNe zaruur aauuNgii. Tumhaare bhaabhii ke parivaar Se koii Nahiin aa rahaa?)
B:Okay. I will definitely go to congratulate him. Your brother's fiance's relatives aren't coming?
A:अरे हाँ. भाभी की परिवार भी आएगी लेकिन तीन लोग.(are haan, bhaabhi kii parivaar bhi aayegii LekiN Tiin Log.)
A:Oh yes, they're coming too but only three of them.
B:ऐसा क्यूँ? (aiSaa kyun?)
B:Why is that?
A:उनके रिश्तेदार सब कर्णाटक में रहते हैं तो दूरी कुछ ज़्यादा है. (uNke risTeDaar Sab karnaatak mein rahTe hain To Duurii kuch zyaaDaa hai.)
A:Their relatives live in Karnataka so the distance is too great to make the trip.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya: The Hindi language seems to have a lot of words for describing family relations.
Udita: That’s true. This has to do with Indian families and how relations work.
Maya: I’ve heard about how families are very big and people all live together with their parents and grandparents.
Udita: Yes, there are a lot of extended families. In the past these were more common, but nowadays there is mix of both. But even in smaller families, relatives are very important. Every relative has a different name. So if your uncle is your mother’s brother, it’s different from your father’s brother.
Maya: Okay, so the names for the relation are different if you are related on your father’s side, or your mother’s side, or through marriage, right?
Udita: Yes, but there are also different names depending on whether they are older or younger than your father.
Maya: Lots of categories there!
Udita: Yes, there are! But surprisingly, when it comes to the term ‘cousin’ there is no equivalent for that word in Hindi. Your siblings and cousins are both called brother or sister, and then distinguished by their given names and rank by age.
Maya: And being ranked by age, means that you would refer to people as “eldest aunt”, “youngest brother” depending on the order of siblings.
Udita: The oldest sister, uncles, aunt or the oldest of any relation is usually called “badaa” or “badii” which means “big” or “eldest”. So your father’s oldest sister, is your “badii buaa”.
Maya: Yes, and the older someone is, the more respect and authority they generally have, within a family. Age is quite important - you are expected to always show respect to those older than you.
Udita: Yes, always, whether you live with your parents, their siblings and parents, or just on your own.
Maya: In India, the family unit is the most important unit of identity and function for most individuals. Family always comes first. Ok, now let’s move on to the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Maya: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Udita: दूरी (Duurii) [natural native speed]
Maya: far-ness, distance
Udita: दूरी (Duurii) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: दूरी (Duurii) [natural native speed]
Udita: पड़ोसी (padoSii) [natural native speed]
Maya: neighbor(s)
Udita: पड़ोसी (padoSii) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: पड़ोसी (padoSii) [natural native speed]
Udita: करीब (Karib) [natural native speed]
Maya: close, near
Udita: करीब (Karib) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: करीब (Karib) [natural native speed]
Udita: भाई (bhaai) [natural native speed]
Maya: brother
Udita: भाई (bhaai) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: भाई (bhaai) [natural native speed]
Udita: शनिवार (saNivaar) [natural native speed]
Maya: Saturday
Udita: शनिवार (saNivaar) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: शनिवार (saNivaar) [natural native speed]
Udita: ऐसा (aiSaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: like this, such + noun
Udita: ऐसा (aiSaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: ऐसा (aiSaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: मंगनी (maNgNii) [natural native speed]
Maya: engagement ceremony
Udita: मंगनी (maNgNii) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: मंगनी (maNgNii) [natural native speed]
Udita: बधाई (baDhaaii) [natural native speed]
Maya: congratulations, greetings
Udita: बधाई (baDhaaii) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: बधाई (baDhaaii) [natural native speed]
Udita: अगले (agLe) [natural native speed]
Maya: next
Udita: अगले (agLe) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: अगले (agLe) [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Maya: Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Udita: The first word is “risTeDaar”. This is a noun which means “relatives”.
Maya: This covers everyone outside your immediate family, which is your “parivaar”.
Udita: Let’s go through some of these relations that come up in Hindi. Parents?
Maya: “Mother” is “maa” or “mammii”. That is what you would directly call your mother. There are other words for how you could refer to a mother.
Udita: The same is true for father, but you would call him “paapaa” or “piTaajii”.
Maya: Next is your spouse. They would be “paTi” which is husband, or “paTNii” which is wife.
Udita: Your children are “betaa” for “son”, and “betii” for daughter.
Maya: Now for siblings, the terms are different depending on age. If they are older than you, your brother is “bhaiyaa”, your sister is “DiiDii”. If they are younger, then you can call them “bhaaii” for brother, and “bahaN” for sister. But if they are younger than you, you normally call them by their name only.
Udita: To go a little further, siblings’ spouses also have specific names. Your brother’s wife is “bhaabhii”, and your sister’s husband is “jiijaa”.
Maya: And then you have grandparents. Now, the terms here are different for your mother’s parents, and your father’s.
Udita: Right, so your mother’s father is “NaaNaa”, and her mother is “NaaNii”. Your father’s father is “DaaDaa” and his mother is “DaaDii”.
Maya: Then we come to the relatives. Some families in India would have all these people living under one roof too, so it is quite important to know the different names. Usually, in Indian extended families, you’d be living with your father’s side of the family.
Udita: So let’s start with them. Your father’s brothers or cousins - if they are younger than he is - are “caacaa”, and their wives are “caacii” to you.
Maya: If your father’s brother is older than him, you will call him “Taayaa” and his wife “Taayii”.
Udita: Your father’s sisters are all “buaa”, and their husbands are “phuuphaa” to you.
Maya: The words for your mother’s siblings are much simpler, because it doesn’t matter who is younger or older. Her brothers and male cousins are all “maamaa”. Their wives are “maamii”.
Udita: Your mother’s sisters are called “mauSii”. Mausii’s husbands are called “mauSaa”. And that’s the basic list of family members.
Maya: So far, these are classified by age, gender and relation to you. What if there are many uncles or aunts or others?
Udita: They can separated by name, so your uncle may be called “Babloomaamaa” if his name is Babloo. And then sometimes you say “badii mauSii” and “chotii mauSii” to mean “elder aunt”, “younger aunt”.
Maya: Okay got it! Now let’s look at the grammar.

Lesson focus

Maya: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use the present continuous verb tense, such as “aa rahe hain”, which means “is coming”.
Udita: We’ve touched on this previously, so let’s look more closely at it.
Maya: Any verb plus “rahe” makes it continuous. “rahe hai” is present continuous.
Udita: The verb is in infinitive, but doesn’t have the “-Naa” ending, like in “aa rahe hai” for the verb “aaNaa” meaning “to come”.
Maya: The masculine form is “rahaa hai”, the feminine is “rahii hai”, and the plural is “rahe hai”. Let’s try with some more verbs.
Udita: Okay, so “vo jaa rahaa hai” means “He is going”. “Vo khaa rahii hai” means “She is eating.”
Maya: Yes, and “ve pii rahe hain” will mean “They are drinking”. The “hai” changes to “huun” when talking about self.
Udita: If I were going away tomorrow, I would say in Hindi “main kaL jaa rahaa huun.”
Maya: Exactly. And there are some other modifications. If “hai” or “huun” is changed to “hoNge”, it will become a prediction or a guess.
Udita: So for a male “rahaa hogaa”, for a female “rahii hogii” and for plural or formal forms, it’s “rahe hoNge”. It’s the same for talking about yourself.
Maya: For example, “mauSii ab So rahii hogii”. This means “Aunt - (mother’s sister) must be sleeping at this time”.
Udita: This can be guessing about the present or present continuous.
Maya: This tense can also be changed easily to past continuous by adding ‘THaa’, ‘THii’ or ‘THe’. जा रहे थे ‘jaa rahe THe’ means “was” or “were going”.
Udita: If you were to say “They were singing very loudly” in Hindi, that would be “Vo bahuT zor Se gaaNaa gaa rahe THe.”
Maya: Right. Now in the conversation we heard, the sentence used was “kauN kauN aa rahaa hai?” This means “who’ll be attending?”
Udita: It’s in the singular form, because “kauN kauN” means “who”, but individually. So for each person who is coming to the ceremony in the conversation, the verb is “aa rahaa hai”.

Outro

Maya: Well, that's all for this lesson. Be sure to read the lesson notes for more examples!
Udita: Also, please leave us a comment at HindiPod101.com saying “I am learning Hindi”, in Hindi.
Maya: Thanks for listening. Until next time - aLviDaa!
Udita: “Sukriyaa aur aLviDaa!”

17 Comments

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HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
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Hello Listeners! Let's practice the Auxiliary Verb जाना (jaaNaa).

HindiPod101.com
Sunday at 09:25 PM
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Hi Kurt,


Thanks for your positive feedback!


We are glad you are enjoying learning with HindiPod101.com


Nice try with the Hindi sentence. Try this to get a perfect one, मैं हिंदी सीख रहा हूं or main hiNDii Siikh rahaa huun or I am learning Hindi.


If you have any questions on any of the lessons, please do contact us.


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Kurt
Friday at 11:07 AM
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मैं हिंदि सईख राह हूँ

Kurt
Friday at 10:51 AM
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I am enjoying the amazing insights of Hindi grammar and word usage as well as the cultural insights.

HindiPod101.com
Tuesday at 12:50 PM
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Hi Y.D.


Good to know you are learning Hindi and you are enjoying it!


We hope HindiPod101.com will be a great help to you.


If you have any questions, do let us know.


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com



Y.D.
Thursday at 11:55 PM
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नमस्ते। मैं हिंदी सीख रही हूँ।‌ और मुझे हिंदी सीखना पसंद है।


फिर मिलेंगे।

HindiPod101.com
Wednesday at 08:59 PM
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Hi Ian,


I will try to address some of your questions you posted for Udita here.


Firstly, in Hindi, we generally say "blinded IN love" and not another way. For "People are blinded by love", in Hindi we generally say, "People blinded IN love". So, it will be लोग प्यार में अंधे हो जाते हैं


For "People are blind to love", in Hindi, we would say, "People are unable to see love". So, it will be लोग प्यार को नहीं देख पाते हैं


For your question about, आप कैसे हैं अब? In written Hindi, and also the grammatically correct Hindi, the sentence starts with "ab". But in spoken Hindi, we can place it at the end too. So, both work.


Same for भगवान ने क्यों रचा है सृष्टि को. The correct form is भगवान ने सृष्टि को क्यों रचा. But in spoken Hindi, people use the first form too.


In other words, the difference is mainly between written and spoken Hindi. Spoken Hindi is not always grammatically correct and people may shift words around.


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com



Ian
Wednesday at 07:42 AM
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नमस्ते उदिता

Re: "लोग प्यार से अंधे हैं" - to mean 'people are blind to love’.

Is there any way of explaining why this form isn’t possible? को normally means ‘to’, right? लोग प्यार को अंधे हैं

How can I differentiate between ‘People are blinded by love’ - they don’t see other people’s faults, and People are blind to love - which means they are unaware of love.

अपने पीए के लिए धन्यवाद

Thanks for your patience.

Re: the position of the verb. It seems that at times it is possible to add a word (words) after the ‘final’ verb. For example, lesson 10 line one:

आप कैसे हैं अब?

I asked for more examples and a systematic way of understanding this feature.

More examples:

भगवान ने क्यों रचा है सृष्टि को

Why God created the universe


मिटा दें अपनी झूठी पहचान को

Wipe away your false identity


क्या है प्रेम का अर्थ?

What is the meaning of love?


I now understand that these must be ‘marked’ forms. They add emphasis to the final word(s), don’t they?


हमारे पुनः मिलने तक

Until we meet again


इयन

Ian

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 03:53 PM
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नमस्ते इयन,


"लेकिन आज ज्यादातर लोग प्यार बारे सें अंधेरे में हैं, है न?

But today, most people are in the dark about (blind to) love, aren’t they?"

This doesn't work the same way in Hindi. The metaphor "being in the dark" doesn't translate quite so literally. Rather if you mean, "people are bereft/deprived of love", then you can say "लोग प्यार से वंचित हैं" -- this suggests that the blame doesn't lie with the people, or alternatively again "लोग प्यार से अंधे हैं" - to mean 'people are blind to love'.


"Re: मेरी आकांक्षा है इन रूपों को पहचानने की| (The verb is in second position)

you teach:

इन रूपों को पहचानने की मेरी आकांक्षा है. (Here the verb is in the expected position: last!)

or

मेरी आकांक्षा है कि इन रूपों को पहचानने की|"

The first 2 are both correct; मेरी आकांक्षा है इन रूपों को पहचानने की| and इन रूपों को पहचानने की मेरी आकांक्षा है| but those are the only variations possible unless you start changing the words in the sentence. The first is the more natural and common way of structuring this sentence. Does that answer your question?


Best,

Udita

Team HindiPod101.com

Ian Rowcliffe
Thursday at 08:20 AM
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नमस्ते उदिता Namaste Udita

हम काफ़ी दिनों से नहीं मिले।

We haven't met for many days:-)

भावानुवाद करके

Paraphrasing:

लेकिन आज ज्यादातर लोग प्यार बारे सें अंधेरे में हैं, है न?

But today, most people are in the dark about (blind to) love, aren't they?


Re: मेरी आकांक्षा है इन रूपों को पहचानने की| (The verb is in second position)

you teach:

इन रूपों को पहचानने की मेरी आकांक्षा है. (Here the verb is in the expected position: last!)

or

मेरी आकांक्षा है कि इन रूपों को पहचानने की|

(So I was asking for more examples when the verb is not last.)

HindiPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 11:24 PM
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Hello Ian,


Re: लेकिन आज ज्यादातर लोग प्यार से अंधे होते हैं, है न?

This doesn't translate as ‘But today, most people are blinded by love, is not it?’ because it uses 'से', whereas "blinded by love" or "blind in love" would be 'प्यार में अंधे'.


I'm not sure I understand your second question - could you explain further?


Best,

Udita

Team HindiPod101.com