Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Maya: "Namaste," I'm Maya, and welcome back to HindiPod101.com’s Beginner Series. This is Season 1, Lesson 16 - Shopping for Vegetables in India.
Udita: "Namaste,I’m Udita in Hindi". In this lesson you’ll learn how to use the verb “करना karNaa” meaning to do.
Maya: This conversation takes place at a street market.
Udita: It’s between a vegetable seller and a customer.
Maya: Since they are strangers, they’ll be using Polite Hindi.
Udita: Let’s listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
A:भैय्या आलू कितने के है? (bhaiyaa aaLuu kiTNe ke hai?)
B:पंचीस रुपये किलो. (panciiS rupaye kiLo.)
A:बहुत ज्यादा है. आप दाम कम करेंगे तो चार किलो लेंगे. (bahuT zyaaDaa hai. aap Daam kam kareNge To caar kiLo Lenge.)
B:चलिए चार किलो के अस्सी दे दीजिए. (caLie caar kiLo ke aSSii De Diijie.)
A:और टमाटर के कितने? (aur tamaatar ke kiTNe?)
B:बीस रुपये किलो. कितना लेंगे? (biiS rupaye kiLo. kiTNaa LeNge?)
A:आलू के साथ, दो किलो दीजिए. (aaLuu ke SaaTH, Do kiLo Diijie.)
Maya: Now, let’s listen to the same conversation at a slow speed.
A:भैय्या आलू कितने के है? (bhaiyaa aaLuu kiTNe ke hai?)
B:पंचीस रुपये किलो. (panciiS rupaye kiLo.)
A:बहुत ज्यादा है. आप दाम कम करेंगे तो चार किलो लेंगे. (bahuT zyaaDaa hai. aap Daam kam kareNge To caar kiLo Lenge.)
B:चलिए चार किलो के अस्सी दे दीजिए. (caLie caar kiLo ke aSSii De Diijie.)
A:और टमाटर के कितने? (aur tamaatar ke kiTNe?)
B:बीस रुपये किलो. कितना लेंगे? (biiS rupaye kiLo. kiTNaa LeNge?)
A:आलू के साथ, दो किलो दीजिए. (aaLuu ke SaaTH, Do kiLo Diijie.)
Maya: Let’s now listen to the conversation with the English translation.
A:भैय्या आलू कितने के है? (bhaiyaa aaLuu kiTNe ke hai?)
A: How much for the potatoes?
B:पंचीस रुपये किलो. (panciiS rupaye kiLo.)
B: Twenty-five rupees per kilogram.
A:बहुत ज्यादा है. आप दाम कम करेंगे तो चार किलो लेंगे. (bahuT zyaaDaa hai. aap Daam kam kareNge To caar kiLo Lenge.)
A: That's too expensive. If you can lower the price, I'll buy four kilograms.
B:चलिए चार किलो के अस्सी दे दीजिए. (caLie caar kiLo ke aSSii De Diijie.)
B: Okay, you can pay eighty rupees for the four kilograms.
A:और टमाटर के कितने? (aur tamaatar ke kiTNe?)
A: How much for the tomatoes?
B:बीस रुपये किलो. कितना लेंगे? (biiS rupaye kiLo. kiTNaa LeNge?)
B: Twenty rupees per kilogram. How much would you like?
A:आलू के साथ, दो किलो दीजिए. (aaLuu ke SaaTH, Do kiLo Diijie.)
A: Two kilograms, along with the potatoes.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya: We talked about how Indians don’t generally shop at supermarkets earlier in the series. So a lot of people’s groceries are bought at local stores. Vegetables are also bought separately.
Udita: Yes, vegetables are bought and sold fresh in street markets. People from farming families bring their produce into towns and cities on a daily basis, and sell them on open-wheeled carts.
Maya: You walk around, look at the fruits and vegetables, and pick out the ones you think look fresh and good. When you buy them, the seller weighs them on a hand-held weighing scale, and sells them to you by the gram.
Udita: So Maya, the listeners might be wondering – how do you know where to find these vegetable sellers?
Maya: There are areas that are designated street markets in every locality. The sellers assemble there with all their available fruits and vegetables.
Udita: Some of them also walk around with their carts, and fruit sellers especially walk around with baskets of fruit on their heads, calling the name of the fruit they have out loudly in sing-song voices. This is very common with seasonal fruits in summer.
Maya: It works out somehow, doesn’t it? You can always find a seller when you need to. The prices end up being the same or close to an average number, no matter which seller you go to.
Udita: But of course, you can also bargain around the accepted price.
Maya: Ok, now let’s move on to the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Udita: कितने के (kiTNE ke) [natural native speed]
Maya: for how much
Udita: कितने के (kiTNE ke) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: कितने के (kiTNE ke) [natural native speed]
Udita: टमाटर (tamaatar) [natural native speed]
Maya: tomato
Udita: टमाटर (tamaatar) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: टमाटर (tamaatar) [natural native speed]
Udita: कम (kam) [natural native speed]
Maya: less, lesser
Udita: कम (kam) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: कम (kam) [natural native speed]
Udita: आलू (aaloo) [natural native speed]
Maya: potato
Udita: आलू (aaloo) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: आलू (aaloo) [natural native speed]
Udita: पंचीस (panchiiS) [natural native speed]
Maya: 25
Udita: पंचीस (panchiiS) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: पंचीस (panchiiS) [natural native speed]
Udita: ज़्यादा (zyaaDaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: lot, more
Udita: ज़्यादा (zyaaDaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: ज़्यादा (zyaaDaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: चलिए (caLie) [natural native speed]
Maya: all right
Udita: चलिए (caLie) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: चलिए (caLie) [natural native speed]
Udita: दाम (Daam) [natural native speed]
Maya: cost
Udita: दाम (Daam) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: दाम (Daam) [natural native speed]
Udita: अस्सी (assii) [natural native speed]
Maya: eighty
Udita: अस्सी (assii) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: अस्सी (assii) [natural native speed]
Udita: साथ (saath) [natural native speed]
Maya: with, together
Udita: साथ (saath) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: साथ (saath) [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Udita: Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Maya: The first word is ‘ज़्यादा zyaaDaa’, which means “too much” or “a lot”. This is used as an adjective and an adverb.
Udita: Here is an example - “ज़्यादा लोग नहीं दिख रहे zyaaDaa Log Nahiin Dikh rahe”. This means “I don’t see many people”.
Maya: ‘ज़्यादा zyaaDaa’ is often used with ‘बहुत bahuT’ which means ‘very’. Together “बहुत ज़्यादा bahuT zyaaDaa” means “too much”. This is used in the place of the adverb “too” with other adjectives. For example, you could say “बहुत ज़्यादा ठंडा है bahuT zyaaDaa thaNdaa hai”.
Udita: This means “It’s too cold.” Okay, the next word is the opposite - it’s “कम kam” which means “less” or “lesser”, and also “a little” or “too little”.
Maya: This is also used with “बहुत bahuT” to mean “too little”. For example “बहुत कम दाल बाकी है bahuT kam DaaL bakii hai” means “There’s hardly any Daal left”. Daal is the lentil dish that Indians mix their rice with in most meals.
Udita: There’s also a common phrase “कम से कम kam Se kam” which means “at least”. Here’s an example of how it is used “कम से कम देखकर आअो kam Se kam Dekhke To aao”.
Maya: This means “At least go and check it out!” The next word is “साथ SaaTH” which means “together with”.
Udita: This is used with the particle ‘ke’. For example “जूतों के साथ juuTon ke SaaTH” means “with the shoes”.
Maya: Another meaning of this word is the noun ‘company’, which is a masculine noun, as in “her company” or “their company”.
Udita: For example “आप का साथ aap kaa SaaTH” means “your company”, whereas “आप के साथ aap ke SaaTH” means “with you”.
Maya: Sometimes this can mean “support” as well. Ok, now let’s move on to grammar.

Lesson focus

Maya: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use the verb “करना karNaa”.
Udita: This is one of the most commonly used verbs in Hindi. It is often used with participles and nouns as well.
Maya: This verb is a special verb, because it doesn’t follow the same rules of conjugation. The simple present is ‘करता karTaa’, ‘करती karTii’ and ‘करते karTe’.
Udita: The usage can differ depending on the level of formality. In the second person, ‘karte’ is used for both genders and singular or plural, and when speaking at the Polite level too. For example, to ask ‘what do you do?’ in Hindi you would say “तुम क्या करते हो? Tum kyaa karTe ho?” and to say “what does your brother do?” at the Polite level, you would say “आप के भाइ क्या करतें हैं? Aap ke bhaaii kyaa karTe hain?”.
Maya: The simple past tense of ‘करना karNaa’ in the singular is ‘किया kiyaa’ and ‘करी karii’, for male and female. ‘किया kiyaa’ is used for both genders a lot of the time, so that ‘करी karii’ is only used rarely.
Udita: The plural is ‘करें karen’ or ‘किए kie’. But also for plural, the male singular is used commonly. For example ‘उन्होने किया uNhoNe kiyaa’ means “they did”.
Maya: The simple future tense uses the same verb endings that regular verbs in this tense do. ‘करेगा karegaa’ and ‘करेगी karegii’ are the singular masculine and feminine forms respectively, in the third person.
Udita: In the first person they are ‘करुंगा karuNga’ and ‘करुंगी karuNgii’ in their masculine and feminine forms.
Maya: The Polite and plural in the future tense is ‘करेंगे kareNge’ for both.
Udita: Okay, these are the simple present, past and future tenses. The participle form of the verb is the same as its past tense. ‘Kiyaa’ is with masculine nouns, ‘karii’ with feminine nouns, and ‘karen’ with plural nouns.
Maya: Yes, it’s important to note that when using the verb participle, the verb form has to agree with the gender of the object, and not the subject.
Udita: For example, ‘नाटक Naatak’ is a masculine Noun in Hindi which means ‘a play’, and so to say ‘I have acted in this play before’ you would say “मैं ने पेहले यह नाटक किया है main Ne yah Naatak kiyaa hai”.
Maya: Right. ‘किया है kiyaa hai’, ‘करी है karii hai’ and ‘करें है karen hai’ all mean “have done” in first, second or third persons. To change this to “had done”, the “है hai” simply changes to “था THaa”.
Udita: To say “will be done” the participles are the same, but they are combined with the verb “जाना jaaNaa” in the future tense. The masculine will be “किया जाएगा kiyaa jaaegaa”, the feminine will be “करी जाएगी karii jaaegii” and the plural is “करें जाएंगे karen jaaeNge”.
Maya: Let’s go through the simple Imperative forms now. They are ‘कर kar’, ‘करो karo’ and ‘करिए karie’ or ‘कीजिए kiijie’.
Udita: Right. These mean “Do” as an order. ‘कर kar’ is at the Intimate Level, ‘करो karo’ is the Familiar level and ‘करिए karie’ and ‘कीजिए kiijie’ are both Polite forms.
Maya: As an example let’s say “Finish this quickly” in all these levels. What would it be at the Polite Level?
Udita: “जल्दी खतम कीजिए JaLDii khaTam kiijie” or “जल्दी खतम करिए jaLDii khaTam karie”. They both mean the same but ‘कीजिए kiijie’ is standard and ‘करिएkarie’ is more colloquial.
Maya: At the Familiar level, this is “जल्दी खतम करो jaLDii khaTam karo”.
Udita: At the Intimate level, this is “जल्दी खतम कर jaLDii khaTam kar”.
Maya: Right, and as always, it is not recommended that you use the Intimate level except with very close friends or relations, especially in the imperative form.

Outro

Udita: Well that’s all we have time for in this lesson. We hope you enjoyed it!
Maya: Don’t forget to check out the lesson notes for more examples and explanations.
Udita: Thanks for listening and see you next time!
Maya: Sukriyaa aur aLviDaa!

11 Comments

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HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hello Listeners! Which is your favorite vegetable? Can you write it in Hindi?

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 09:05 PM
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Hi Y.D.,


aapaka SvaagaT hai! That is, you are welcome!


Do let us know if you have any questions.


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com


Y.D.
Thursday at 07:57 PM
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Hello Roohi jii. Thank you for the corrections!


फिर मिलेंगे।

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 03:42 PM
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Hi Y.D.


Excellent try!


Few corrections:


Change मेरा to मेरी (merii) because "vegetables" is feminine.


Change सब्ज़ी to सब्ज़ियां (Sabziyaan) because it is plural not singular.


Also, we say "phir miLenge".


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Y.D.
Wednesday at 10:35 AM
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मेरा मनपसंद सब्ज़ी शिमला मिर्च और बंदगोभी हैं।


मिलेंगे!

HindiPod101.com
Wednesday at 08:39 PM
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Hi Ian,


Nice try!


A few minor corrections here: मुझे शिमला मिर्च अच्छी लगती है, या मेरी पसंदीदा सब्ज़ी शिमला मिर्च है, और आपकी?


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com


Ian
Monday at 08:00 AM
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मुझे शिमला मिर्च अच्छे लगते हैं या मेरी पसंदीदा सब्जी शिमला मिर्च है और आप?

I prefer peppers or my favourite vegetable is green pepper. What about you?

HindiPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 10:53 PM
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Hello Anthony,


We're glad you know it now!


Cheers,

Neha

Team HindiPod101.com

Anthony Karan
Wednesday at 08:42 AM
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Hello Neha ji.


Thank you for the correction.


This is something that I haven't learned yet.


Cheers

HindiPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 10:49 PM
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Namaste Anthony ji,


Sounds perfect! Only one correction-


Mai vah khargosh ki Tarah khaaTa hoon :)


Cheers,

Neha

Team HindiPod101.com

Anthony Karan
Tuesday at 11:41 AM
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नमस्ते नेहा जी!

Hello Neha ji!


मेरी सब से पसंदीदा सब्ज़ी गाज़र है।

My favourite vegetable is carrot.


मैं वे खाता हूँ जैसा एक खरगोश।

I eat them like a rabbit.


मुझे भी गोभी पसन्द है।

I also like cauliflower.