Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Maya:“Namaste”, I’m Maya. Welcome to HindiPod101.com Beginner Season 1 Lesson 17 A Hindi Chat With a Fellow Passenger.
Udita:"Namaste,I’m Udita in Hindi". In this lesson you’ll learn to discuss the place you come from, and to use verb participles in Hindi.
Maya:This conversation takes place inside a train.
Udita:The conversation is between co-passengers on a train.
Maya:Since they meet on the train they are strangers, and will be using formal Polite Hindi.
Udita:Let’s listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
A:क्या आप दिल्ली से हैं? (kyaa aap DiLLii Se hain?)
B: नहीं हम यहाँ के नहीं| हम चंडीगड़ से आज सुबह को दिल्ली आए. आप दिल्ली से हैं? (Nahiin ham yahaan ke Nahiin. ham caNdigarh Se aaj Subah ko DiLLii aae. aap DiLLii Se hain?)
A:जी हाँ. आज बड़ी ठन्ड है नहीं? (jii haan. aaj badii thaNd hai Nahiin?)
B:हाँ बिलकुल. दिल्ली में कुछ ज़्यादा ही ठन्ड पड़ी है इस बार| (haan biLkuL. DiLLii mein kuch zyaaDaa hii thaNd padii hai iS baar.)
A:आप के यहाँ इतनी ठंड होती है? (aap ke yahaan iTNii thaNd hoTii hai?)
B:नहीं इतनी तो नहीं होती, पर सुना है पहले हुआ करती थी। (Nahiin iTaNii To Nahiin hoTii, par SuNaa hai pahaLe huaa karaTii THii.)
A:अच्छा। अभी थोड़ी गरम चाय मिल जाती, तो अच्छा होता। (acchaa. abhii THodii garam caay miL jaaTii, To acchaa hoTaa.)
Maya: Now, let’s listen to the same conversation at a slow speed.
A:क्या आप दिल्ली से हैं? (kyaa aap DiLLii Se hain?)
B: नहीं हम यहाँ के नहीं| हम चंडीगड़ से आज सुबह को दिल्ली आए. आप दिल्ली से हैं? (Nahiin ham yahaan ke Nahiin. ham caNdigarh Se aaj Subah ko DiLLii aae. aap DiLLii Se hain?)
A:जी हाँ. आज बड़ी ठन्ड है नहीं? (jii haan. aaj badii thaNd hai Nahiin?)
B:हाँ बिलकुल. दिल्ली में कुछ ज़्यादा ही ठन्ड पड़ी है इस बार| (haan biLkuL. DiLLii mein kuch zyaaDaa hii thaNd padii hai iS baar.)
A:आप के यहाँ इतनी ठंड होती है? (aap ke yahaan iTNii thaNd hoTii hai?)
B:नहीं इतनी तो नहीं होती, पर सुना है पहले हुआ करती थी। (Nahiin iTaNii To Nahiin hoTii, par SuNaa hai pahaLe huaa karaTii THii.)
A:अच्छा। अभी थोड़ी गरम चाय मिल जाती, तो अच्छा होता। (acchaa. abhii THodii garam caay miL jaaTii, To acchaa hoTaa.)
Maya: Let’s now listen to the conversation with the English translation.
A:क्या आप दिल्ली से हैं? (kyaa aap DiLLii Se hain?)
A: Are you from Delhi?
B: नहीं हम यहाँ के नहीं| हम चंडीगड़ से आज सुबह को दिल्ली आए. आप दिल्ली से हैं? (Nahiin ham yahaan ke Nahiin. ham caNdigarh Se aaj Subah ko DiLLii aae. aap DiLLii Se hain?)
B: No, we're not from here. We just came from Chandigarh this morning. Are you from Delhi?
A:जी हाँ. आज बड़ी ठन्ड है नहीं? (jii haan. aaj badii thaNd hai Nahiin?)
A: Yes. It's very cold today, isn't it?
B:हाँ बिलकुल. दिल्ली में कुछ ज़्यादा ही ठन्ड पड़ी है इस बार| (haan biLkuL. DiLLii mein kuch zyaaDaa hii thaNd padii hai iS baar.)
B: Yes, quite. It's a very cold winter in Delhi this year.
A:आप के यहाँ इतनी ठंड होती है? (aap ke yahaan iTNii thaNd hoTii hai?)
A: Does it get this cold at your place?
B:नहीं इतनी तो नहीं होती, पर सुना है पहले हुआ करती थी। (Nahiin iTaNii To Nahiin hoTii, par SuNaa hai pahaLe huaa karaTii THii.)
B: No, not this much. But I've heard it used to be this cold.
A:अच्छा। अभी थोड़ी गरम चाय मिल जाती, तो अच्छा होता। (acchaa. abhii THodii garam caay miL jaaTii, To acchaa hoTaa.)
A: I see. If we could get some hot tea now, that'd be great.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya:As we’ve discussed before, train rides are quite long in India. It’s quite common then to make friends with your co-passengers.
Udita:Yes, people do strike up conversations a lot. You’re in a train booth for many hours, and sharing the same space, so it’s quite natural.
Maya:There are of course lots of other people walking by too, such as sellers and vendors, who walk through the compartments selling snacks and goods.
Udita:Yes but that depends on the carriage level that you buy a ticket for. You could get a ticket for carriages with sealed glass windows and AC compartments, which are quieter. In these, only railway employees and contracted caterers walk by to serve food and drinks, or sell books and newspapers.
Maya:They also bring bottles of water and give you pillows and blankets for the night, much like in airplane flights.
Udita:And also serve you breakfast on a tray, with a flask of hot water for your tea in the morning.
Maya:For a cheaper ticket though, you can ride the same train in compartments with open windows and doors where all sorts of sellers walk by. You may even be able to buy a cup of chai or local sweets from a station through the window!
Udita:Yes! The ride on the different types of carriage levels can be a very different experience, on the same train. So you should choose your train ticket based on what kind of experience you’re looking for.
Maya:That’s right! You could have a quiet, comfortable ride where you can enjoy the scenery in isolation, or a more entertaining one where you can interact with lots of people, and enjoy the local food, and drinks as you go along. Ok, let’s move on to the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Maya: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Udita: ठन्ड (thaNd) [natural native speed]
Maya: cold
Udita: ठन्ड (thaNd) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: ठन्ड (thaNd) [natural native speed]
Udita: पहले (pahLe) [natural native speed]
Maya: before
Udita: पहले (pahLe) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: पहले (pahLe) [natural native speed]
Udita: पर (par) [natural native speed]
Maya: but (colloquial)
Udita: पर (par) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: पर (par) [natural native speed]
Udita: सुनना (suNNaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: to hear
Udita: सुनना (suNNaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: सुनना (suNNaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: पड़ना (padNaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: to fall (for weather only)
Udita: पड़ना (padNaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: पड़ना (padNaa) [natural native speed]
Udita: आप के यहाँ (aap ke yahaan) [natural native speed]
Maya: at your place
Udita: आप के यहाँ (aap ke yahaan) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: आप के यहाँ (aap ke yahaan) [natural native speed]
Udita: इस बार (iS baar) [natural native speed]
Maya: this time
Udita: इस बार (iS baar) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: इस बार (iS baar) [natural native speed]
Udita: बिलकुल (biLkuL) [natural native speed]
Maya: completely, absolutely
Udita: बिलकुल (biLkuL) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: बिलकुल (biLkuL) [natural native speed]
Udita: इतनी (iTnii) [natural native speed]
Maya: this much
Udita: इतनी (iTnii) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: इतनी (iTnii) [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Maya:Now let’s take a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Udita:The first phrase is “आप के यहाँ aap ke yahaan” which may not make sense taken literally - “at your here” but what it actually means is “at your place” or “where you’re from”, which can mean “your town”, “your home”, “your village” or “your neighborhood”.
Maya:The reverse is also true. If you say “हमारे यहाँ hamaare yahaan” that would mean “where I’m from” or “at my place”.
Udita:The next word is “इतनी iTNii” which means “this much” and is in the feminine form. The masculine is ‘इतना iTNaa’ and the plural is ‘इतने iTNe’.
Maya:This word can be used with any adjective or adverb. For example “इतना ठंडा iTNaa thaNdaa” means “this cold”, “इतनी मुष्किल iTNii muskiL” means “this difficult”.
Udita:These phrases can be said on their own as exclamatory statements as well, where the meaning changes from “this much” to “so much”.
Maya:For example, to remark ‘So much food!’ in Hindi, you can say इतना खाना iTNaa khaaNaa!”
Udita:The next word is ‘पड़ना padNaa’. This is a verb that has a few very different meanings. One such meaning is “to fall” but only in the context of weather, with rain, heat, cold or snow.
Maya:For example “गर्मी पड़ना garmii padNaa” means “to get hot” in weather-terms. Similarly ‘बरफ़ पड़ना baraf padNaa’ means “to snow”.
Udita:For example when the weather gets cold in Hindi you would say “ठंड पड़ी है thaNd padii hai” which means ‘it’s gotten cold’. Now, let’s move on to the grammar.

Lesson focus

Maya:In this lesson we will focus on constructing and using simple verb participles, such as the participle ‘done’ from the verb ‘to do’.
Udita:Verb participles are made by removing the ‘ना Naa’ from the infinitive form, to get the verb root, and joining with ‘aa’, ‘ii’ or ‘e’ for masculine, feminine and plural forms respectively.
Maya:For example, the verb ‘बोलना boLNaa’ means “to speak” and so in the masculine participle form ‘aa’ is added to ‘बोल boL’ so that we get “बोला boLaa”.
Udita:If the verb root ends in a vowel, then it is instead joined with ‘या yaa’, ‘यी yii’ or ‘ये ye’ for masculine, feminine and plural forms respectively.
Maya:Right, so the verb ‘सोना SoNaa’ which means “to sleep” will become ‘सोया Soyaa’ in the masculine participle form’.
Udita:There are five exceptions to this. One is ‘होना hoNaa’ which becomes “हुआ huaa, हुइ huii or हुए hue”.
Maya:Second is “करना karNaa”, which we have learned previously. The participles are ‘किया kiyaa’, ‘की kii’, and ‘करें karen’.
Udita:The third is ‘जाना jaaNaa’ which means ‘to go’. This becomes ‘गया gayaa’, ‘गयी gayii’ or ‘गए gaye’. Another is “लेना LeNaa” which means ‘to take’. The particples are ‘लिया Liyaa’, ‘ली Lii’ or ‘लिए Lie’.
Maya:The last exception is the verb ‘देना DeNaa’ which means “to give”. The participles are ‘दिया Diyaa’, ‘दी Dii’ or ‘दिए Die’.
Udita:Right. Well, those are the rules for constructing verb participles. Now let’s talk about how they are used.
Maya:In the present perfect tense, the participle is used with “है hai” or “हैं hain” which means “is” and “are respectively.
Udita:For example “हमने काम खतम नहीं किया है hamNe kaam khaTam Nahiin kiyaa hai” means “we haven’t finished our work”.nSince ‘we’ is the subject which is responsible for the action, you can use ‘किया है kiyaa hai’ which means “have done”. Here the participle has to match the gender and number of the object. Since “kaam” is singular and masculine in Hindi, the participle “kiyaa” from the verb “karNaa” meaning “to do”, is also in the singular masculine form.
Maya:In the past perfect tense, ‘है hai’ or ‘हैं hain’ are replaced by ‘था THaa’, ‘थी THii’ or ‘थे THe’. These are the masculine, feminine and plural forms for “was or were”. Used with the verb participle these give the meaning “had done”.
Udita:For example “मैं ने अखबार में आपकी कहानी पढ़ी थी maiNe akhbaar mein aapkii kahaaNii parhii THii’ means “I had read your story in the newspaper”. Because the object “kahaaNii” is singular feminine in Hindi, the participle “parhii”, from the verb “parhNaa” meaning “to read”, is also in the singular feminine form.
Maya:The future perfect tense is a little different because there are various nuances. With verbs for actions that have a clear beginning and end, such as reading, singing, eating, an additional verb participle ‘लिया Liyaa” is used to show that the action is completed. For brief actions that are momentary and completed in one-shot, like the act of leaving, finding, or reaching, the participle ‘गया gayaa’ is added. This is something we’ll learn in more detail later.
Udita:The future perfect tense uses the participles with ‘होगा hogaa’ for masculine, ‘होगी hogii’ for feminine and ‘होंगे hoNge’ for plural to mean “will be”.
Maya:For example to say “must have eaten” in Hindi you would take the participle of the verb “khaaNaa” meaning “to eat”, and add to “hogaa”, to say “khayaa hogaa”.
Udita:For example “उसने खाया होगा uSNe khaayaa hogaa” means “He must have eaten it”. In the same way you could say “वह पहुँचा होगा vo pahucaa hogaa” which means “She must have reached”.
Maya:The last tense we will cover in this lesson with verb participles is the Conditional Perfect Tense, which poses ideas of how things would have happened if such and such had happened. In Hindi, the meaning of “if” is contained in the construction of the verb ending.
Udita:We use ‘होता hotaa, होती hotii or होते hote’ here to end the sentence. ‘होता hoTaa’ means ‘if something would have”, and ‘होती hoTii’ is feminine while ‘होते hoTe’ is plural.
Maya:This tense usually responds to the particle “agar” which means “if”. So the phrase “अगर मैं अौर लम्बी होती agar main aur Lambii hoTii” means “If I were taller” when said by a female. Sometimes the word “agar” is omitted but the meaning stays the same.
Udita:Right, so you could say अगर मैं अौर लम्बी होती तो मैं उस पेड़ पर चड़ पाती ‘agar main aur Lambii hoTii To main uS ped par cad paaTii’ or मैं अौर लम्बी होती तो मैं उस पेड़ पर चड़ पाती
Maya:The meaning would stay the same - If I were taller I would be able to climb that tree.
Udita:Here is an example “उसका पासपोर्ट चोरी न हुअा होता तो वो चीन घुमने गया होता uSka paasport corii Na huii hoTii To vo ciiN ghumNe gayaa hoTaa”. This means “If his passport hadn’t been stolen, he would have gone on a trip to China”.

Outro

Maya:Okay. That’s it for this lesson.
Udita:Please make sure you check out the lesson notes for more explanations and examples. Thank you for listening!
Maya:Thank you and until next time!
Udita:Sukriyaa aur phir miLeNge!

14 Comments

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😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
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Hello Listeners, let's practice here the Perfect Tenses in Hindi!

HindiPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 09:43 PM
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Hi Jeffrey,


😁😁😁


Don't worry. It will get easier with practice.


If need help, just let us know!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Jeffrey Dsouza
Wednesday at 01:06 AM
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Tenses is causing tension

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 02:20 PM
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Hi Harry,


Thanks for your post!


I will give you a few examples, hope this helps.


Harry kaa pen (pen is masculine, so we use "kaa")

Harry ki mez (mez or table is feminine, so we use "ki")

Harry ke iraaDe (iraade or intentions is plural, so we use "ke")

Harry Ne kaam kiyaa (kaam or work is masculine, so we use "kiyaa")

Harry ye kaam karegaa (Harry is male, so we use "karegaa")

Harry ye kaam karegii (Harry is female, so we use "karegii")


I hope that helps!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Harry
Tuesday at 02:45 PM
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Hi, I'm a little confused about the participle for the verb करना (karNaa).


In this lesson (17) it says the participles are कया kiyaa (masculine), क kii (feminine), and कए kie (plural / polite)

But in lesson 16 it says they are कया kiyaa (masculine) कर karii (feminine) and करें karen (plural / polite)


Are both versions acceptable? If not, which one is correct?


Thanks.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 11:01 AM
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Hi Y.D.,


Thanks for your post.


That's perfect!


Keep learning!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Y.D.
Wednesday at 05:49 AM
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मैंने चावल खरीदा था। I had bought rice.

HindiPod101.com
Wednesday at 08:32 PM
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Hi Ian,


That's well done!


Just keep in mind that the spelling is बहुत


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Ian
Tuesday at 10:04 AM
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मैंने आज बहूत काम नहीं किया, लेकिन कल मैंने बहूत काम किया था। बारिश नहीं पड़ी होती तो आज मैंने बहुत काम किया होता।

I didn’t work hard today, but I had worked hard yesterday. Were there no rain, I would have worked hard today.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 12:14 PM
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Hey Daniel,

We are really sorry for the late reply!

I would like to correct your sentences here: Bharat mein main train se ghuma tha.

Maine bahut chai pee (pi).


Thanks a lot. And please keep posting your comments :thumbsup:

Cheers,

Shakti

Team HindiPod101.com

Daniel
Tuesday at 06:17 PM
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main train se Bharat ke aas paas ghuma tha


i had travelled by train around India


main bahut kuch chai piya


I drank a lot of chai