Dialogue - Hindi

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Vocabulary

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बाशिंदा baasiNDaa inhabitant
ग्रेजुएशन graijuesaN graduation, used interchangeably to mean “undergraduate studies
शुरुआत suruaaT beginning
दिलचस्पी DiLcaSpii interest, liking
ग्राहक graahak customer
प्रसिद्ध praSiDDHa reputed, distinguished, famous
साहित्य SaahiTya literature
इतिहास iTihaas history, record
परिसेवक pariSevak server, attendant

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus of This Lesson is Describing your Interests and Goals In the Active Voice

हम बिलकुल अपने युवा कर्मचारियों को सिखाकर अच्छे से तैयार करना पसंद करते है, और यह आशा रखते है कि वो भी निष्ठां से काम करे।

ham biLkuL apNe yuvaa karmcaariyon ko Sikhaakar acche Se Taiyaar karNaa paSaND karTe hain, aur yah aasaa rakhTe hain ki vo bhii Nisthaa Se kaam kare.
"We definitely like to train our young staff, and expect that they work with dedication as welll."


 

In this lesson, we will learn how to:

  1.     Compare the passive voice and active voice
  2.     Write sentences in active voice—sentence pattern
  3.     Use vocabulary for talking about interests and goals


1. How to Compare the Passive Voice and Active Voice

 

In Hindi there are several ways of making a sentence passive. This is most common when talking about likes and dislikes.

In this lesson, we focus on the present tense, talking about likes and dislikes in an active voice and using different verb conjugations.

When talking about likes and dislikes in Hindi, we usually use the format:

1) I like doing X

[pronoun-inflected verb-present continuous form  पसंद है ]

[mujhe verb-Naa paSaND hai]

 

For example:

  1. "I like singing." (closer to: "Singing is appealing to me")
    मुझे गाना पसंद है।
    mujhe gaaNaa paSaND hai

This is the passive voice. The pronoun is inflected and becomes the subject instead of the object (मुझे mujhe "Me" instead of मैं main "I"). पसंद paSaND which means "like" is akin to a noun, and the only verb applied is the intransitive है hai ("is") from होना hoNaa ("to be"). The second object, "singing," is in the present continuous form of the verb.

 

The same can be expressed in an active voice, in the simple present tense, where the verb is in the infinitive form, in the following way:

 

2) I like to do X.

[pronoun X verb-infinitive form पसंद  करता हूँ ]

[pronoun X verb-infinitive form paSaND karTaa huun]

For example:

  1. "I like to sing."
    मैं गाना पसंद करता हूँ।
    main gaaNaa paSaND karTaa huun.

Here the object pronoun is active ("I," not "me"), and the main verb is transitive (करना karNaa - "to do").

This type of sentence is better suited to describing your hobbies and interests in formal situations, and for taking a more active tone in describing. The regular way of talking about likes makes the personal pronoun (मैं main- "I") into the subject (मुझे mujhe - "Me"), and so it's a passive way of talking about your likes, even though that is the common way. Switching to the present continuous tense makes the tone more active.

Beyond just talking about your likes, this type of sentence is also used to describe your process of working and skills, how you work etc. and is particularly suited to professional situations, where we use the format "I like to do X" to talk about work habits and discipline as well.

 

2. How to Write Sentences in Present Continuous Tense for "liking."

 

The basic sentence structure is the following:

 

[मैं  X verb-infinitive पसंद करता हूँ ]

[main X verb-infinitive paSaND karTaa huun] (first-person singular, masculine)

[मैं  X verb-infinitive पसंद करती हूँ ]

[main X verb-infinitive paSaND karTii huun] (first-person singular, feminine)

[ "I" + X verb + "like to."]

 

[हम  X verb-infinitive पसंद करते हैं ]

[ham X verb-infinitive paSaND karTe hain] (first-person plural)

[ "We" + X verb + "like to."]

 

 

पसंद paSaND: "like"

करना karNaa: "to do"

हूँ huun: "am" (in this case "do" in the first person)

The object [X] has to be in the infinitive form for verbs, and if the object is a noun, it has to be paired with a transitive verb in the infinitive form, usually करना karNaa ("to do").

  1.     Object is a verb: Verb-infinitive [verb root-Naa]
  2.     Object is a noun: Noun + verb infinitive [noun + verb root-Naa]

Here are some examples with verb objects:

-       "To read": पढ़ना parhNaa

-       "To write": लिखना LikhNaa

-       "To build/make": बनाना baNaaNaa

-       "To take/stick": लगना LagNaa

Here are some examples with noun-verb objects:

-       "To exercise": व्यायाम करना vyaayaam karNaa ("do exercise")

-       "To summarize": संक्षेप लिखना Sanksep LikhNaa "(write summary")

-       "To paint": चित्र बनाना ciTra baNaaNaa ("make painting")

-       "To blog": ब्लॉग लिखना bLaug LikhNaa ("write blog")

-       "To serve/to care for": सेवा करना Sevaa karNaa ("do service")

-       "To check/inspect": जांच करना jaanc karNaa ("do checking")

 

In many cases, the verb exists on its own, but it's changed to a noun form and combined with the verb करना karNaa. In the examples below, "sewing" or "stitching" सीना SiiNaa is an action that is awkward to use in the continuous tense "I like sewing," so we change it to a noun सिलाई SiLaai ("sewing/stitching"), used along with करना karNaa (to do), and the sentence changes to "I like to sew/stitch," so it's clear that you are referring to many tasks, not one prolonged action of sewing.

Since the infinitive form for verbs in Hindi is the same as the present tense conjugation -- "to do" and "doing" are both करना karNaa -- this distinction has to be made. These are nuances particular to Hindi grammar, and also idiomatic, so you develop an instinct for where it is better to use this over time.

-     सीना SiiNaa ("sewing/stitching") → सिलाई करना SiLaaii karNaa ("to do sewing/stitching"): "To Sew/Stitch"

-     दौड़ना DaudNaa ("running") → दौड़ लगाना Daud LagaaNaa ("to go running"): "To run"

-     खरीदना khariiDNaa ("buying") → खरीदारी करना khariDaarii karNaa ("to do shopping"): "To shop"

-     झगड़ना jhagadNaa ("arguing/fighting") → झगड़ा करना jhagdaa karNaa ("to do fighting/arguing"): "To argue/fight"

 

For example:

  1. मैं लिखना पसंद करती हूँ।
    main LikhNaa paSaND karTii huun. (feminine)

    "I like to write."
  2. मैं व्यायाम करना पसंद करता हूँ।
    main vyaayaam karNaa paSaND karTaa huun.(masculine)
    "I like to exercise." (instead of "I like exercising")
  3. मैं डरपोक नहीं हूँ लेकिन मैं खामखा झगड़ा करना पसंद नहीं करता।
    main darpok Nahiin huun, LekiN main khamakhaa jhagdaa karNaa paSaND Nahiin karTaa. (masculine)

    "I am not a coward, but I don't like to get into fights unnecessarily."

 

 

3. How to Use Vocabulary for Talking About Interests and Goals

 

The following are similar formats and words used for talking about goals and interests.

- पसंद paSaND("like," "taste")

For example: मैं कार्य शुरू करने से पहले सम्पूर्णता से रीसर्च करना पसंद करता हूँ। main karya suru karNe Se pahLe SampuurnTaa Se riiSarc karNaa paSaND karTaa huun. (masculine) - "I like to research fully before starting the task."


- आकांक्षा aakaNksaa ("desire," "ambition")

For example: मैं अपनी कम्पनी बनाने की आकांक्षा रखता हूँ। main apNii kampaNii baNaaNe kii aakanksaa rakhTaa huun (masculine)- "I hope to create my own company" (more literally: I nurse the desire of creating my own company).

 

- इच्छा icchaa ("wish")

For example: परीक्षा के बाद आपकी क्या करने की इच्छा है? pariiksaa ke baaD aapkii kyaa karNe kii icchaa hai? - "What do you wish to do after your exams?"

 

- कामना kaamNaa ("hope," "prayer")

For example: मेरी हमेशा से ही वकील बनने की कामना रही है। merii hamesaa Se hii vakiiL baNNe kii kaamNaa rahii hai. - "I've always wanted to become a lawyer."


- इरादा iraaDaa ("intention")

मेरा इरादा पूरे टीम के जोड़ को मज़बूत बनाने का है। - meraa iraaDaa puure tiim ke jod ko mazbuuT baNaaNe kaa hai. - "My intention is to make the team bonding stronger."

 

 

Sample Sentences


 

  1. मैं लिखना पसंद करती हूँ। (feminine)
    main LikhNaa paSaND karTii huun.

    "I like to write."
  2. मैं व्यायाम करना पसंद करता हूँ| (masculine)
    main vyaayaam karNaa paSaND karTaa huun.

    "I like to exercise."
  3. मैं डरपोक नहीं हूँ लेकिन मुझे खामखा झगड़ा करना पसंद नहीं।
    main darpok Nahiin huun LekiN mujhe khaamakhaa jhagdaa karNaa paSaND Nahiin.

    "I am not a coward, but I don't like to get into fights unnecessarily."

Cultural Insights

The Education System in India

Post-secondary education in India follows the older British system that it was modeled after. Though there are also universities, and colleges within universities, as a whole, people in India commonly refer to post-secondary education as "college." Being in college or going to college is the same as university in other countries. Generally, Bachelor studies last three years, although in some places, the final two years of high school are combined with a Bachelor's education to make it five years. From high school, students start specializing in particular fields; the Arts, Commerce and Science. The Arts include mostly social sciences and humanities, Commerce is all economics, business and statistics, and Sciences combines the life and medical sciences and engineering. From 10th grade onwards students have to choose one of those fields and study only related subjects. This continues on in their bachelor's studies as well, where students can study and specialize in a subject within their chosen field. Because of this early division, it is generally quite difficult to switch fields later. Those studying History, for example, will not be able to switch to pre-medical studies in university easily. However, it is possible for Engineering graduates to study Business after their Bachelor degree is completed. This has become the new trend among young Indians - to study engineering in during their undergraduate, and then enter an MBA program to go on to work in a multinational company.

Lesson Transcript

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Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 1 - A Hindi Job Interview
INTRODUCTION
Eric: Hi everyone, and welcome to HindiPod101.com. This is Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 1 - A Hindi Job Interview. Eric Here.
Udita: नमस्ते I'm Udita.
Eric: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to describe your interests and goals using the active voice. The conversation takes place at an interview.
Udita: It's between Pranav and Akash.
Eric: The speakers are strangers, so they're going to be speaking polite Hindi. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
प्रणव : शुरुआत में अपने बारे में कुछ बताओ ।
आकाश : जी। मेरा नाम आकाश अवस्थी है, मैं आसनसोल का बाशिंदा हूँ।
आकाश : मैं ने हाल ही में ग्रेजुएशन कम्पलीट किया है, और मुझे रेस्टोरेंट और सर्विस मैनेजमेंट में दिलचस्पी है।
आकाश : पिछले एक साल से मैं यहां एक लक्ज़री ब्रांड स्टोर में पार्ट टाइम परिसेवक का काम करता आया हूँ, जिस कारण मुझे ग्राहक की सेवा करने की ख़ास समझ है।
प्रणव : बहुत अच्छा । तुमने ग्रेजुएशन किस विषय में की है?
आकाश : अंग्रेजी साहित्य।
प्रणव : अच्छा। और तुम हमारे रेस्टोरेंट से ही क्यों जुड़ना चाहते हो?
आकाश : आपका रेस्टोरेंट न सिर्फ यहां के सबसे प्रसिद्ध और सम्मानित जगहों में से एक है, बलकि आपका बहुत वर्षों का सफल इतिहास भी है।
आकाश : यह भी चर्चा है की आप कर्मचारियों का ख़याल रखते हैं , नए कर्मचारियों को अच्छे से तैयार करते हैं, और उनको अपनी मेहनत से आगे बढ़ने का मौका भी देते हैं|
आकाश : मैं सीखने की और आगे बढ़ने की आकांक्षा रखता हूँ।
प्रणव : बहुत अच्छा । हम बिलकुल अपने युवा कर्मचारियों को सिखाकर अच्छे से तैयार करना पसंद करते हैं और यह आशा रखते है कि वो भी निष्ठां से काम करे।
Eric: Listen to the conversation one time, slowly.
प्रणव : शुरुआत में अपने बारे में कुछ बताओ ।
आकाश : जी। मेरा नाम आकाश अवस्थी है, मैं आसनसोल का बाशिंदा हूँ।
आकाश : मैं ने हाल ही में ग्रेजुएशन कम्पलीट किया है, और मुझे रेस्टोरेंट और सर्विस मैनेजमेंट में दिलचस्पी है।
आकाश : पिछले एक साल से मैं यहां एक लक्ज़री ब्रांड स्टोर में पार्ट टाइम परिसेवक का काम करता आया हूँ, जिस कारण मुझे ग्राहक की सेवा करने की ख़ास समझ है।
प्रणव : बहुत अच्छा । तुमने ग्रेजुएशन किस विषय में की है?
आकाश : अंग्रेजी साहित्य।
प्रणव : अच्छा। और तुम हमारे रेस्टोरेंट से ही क्यों जुड़ना चाहते हो?
आकाश : आपका रेस्टोरेंट न सिर्फ यहां के सबसे प्रसिद्ध और सम्मानित जगहों में से है, आपकी बहुत वर्षों का सफल इतिहास भी है।
आकाश : यह भी चर्चा है की आप कर्मचारियों का ख़याल रखते हैं , नए कर्मचारियों को अच्छे से तैयार करते हैं, और उनको अपनी मेहनत से आगे बढ़ने का मौका भी देते हैं|
आकाश : मैं सीखने की और आगे बढ़ने की आकांक्षा रखता हूँ।
प्रणव : बहुत अच्छा । हम बिलकुल अपने युवा कर्मचारियों को सिखाकर अच्छे से तैयार करना पसंद करते हैं और यह आशा रखते है कि वो भी निष्ठां से काम करे।
Eric: Listen to the conversation with the English translation
Pranav: To start, please tell us about yourself.
Akash: Sure. My name is Akash Avasthi. I am a resident of Asansol.
Akash: I have recently completed my undergraduate studies, and I am interested in working in hotel service and management.
Akash: For the last year, I have been working part time at a luxury brand store as service staff, so I have a good understanding of customer service.
Pranav: Good. What did you study at university?
Akash: English literature.
Pranav: Okay. And why is it that you want to join our restaurant particularly?
Akash: Not only is your restaurant one of the most famous and reputed, it also has a long successful history.
Akash: It is also known that you take good care of your employees, train new entrants well, and allow them opportunities to advance if they work hard.
Akash: I am interested in learning and moving forward.
Pranav: Good. We definitely like to train our young staff, and expect that they work with dedication as well.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Eric: In his self introduction, Akash was quick to talk about his education history.
Udita: Yes, I think that’s an important thing to cover when you’re in a job interview.
Eric: I think so too! What can you tell us about higher education in India?
Udita: Well, it was modelled after the British system, and it still follows that to this day. However, even though there are universities, and colleges within universities, people in India mainly refer to all post-secondary education as ‘college’.
Eric: How long do people study at college for?
Udita: Bachelor studies generally last three years, although it can be combined with the last two years of high school to make it five.
Eric: And high schools are quite important for college studies?
Udita: That’s right. In high school, students start specializing in different fields, and in 10th grade, students choose a particular field, such as the arts, commerce or science, and they study only subjects related to that.
Eric: Can they change their field later if they change their mind?
Udita: Hmm.. It’s pretty difficult to! If you study history, for example, you wouldn’t be able to study pre-medical studies in university.
Eric: You have to choose wisely then!
Udita: That’s right.
Eric: Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Udita: शुरुआत [natural native speed]
Eric: "beginning"
Udita: शुरुआत [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: शुरुआत [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: बाशिंदा [natural native speed]
Eric: “inhabitant”
Udita: बाशिंदा [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: बाशिंदा [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: ग्रेजुएशन [natural native speed]
Eric: “graduation”, used interchangeably to mean “undergraduate studies”
Udita: ग्रेजुएशन [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: ग्रेजुएशन [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: दिलचस्पी [natural native speed]
Eric: “interest, liking”
Udita: दिलचस्पी [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: दिलचस्पी [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: परिसेवक [natural native speed]
Eric: “server, attendant”
Udita: परिसेवक [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: परिसेवक [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: ग्राहक [natural native speed]
Eric: “customer”
Udita: ग्राहक [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: ग्राहक [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: साहित्य [natural native speed]
Eric: “literature”
Udita: साहित्य[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: साहित्य [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: इतिहास [natural native speed]
Eric: “history, record”
Udita: इतिहास[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: इतिहास [natural native speed]
Eric: And last..
Udita: प्रसिद्ध [natural native speed]
Eric: “reputed, distinguished, famous”
Udita: प्रसिद्ध [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: प्रसिद्ध [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Eric: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first phrase is..
Udita: शुरुआत में suruaaT mein
Eric: Meaning "in the beginning"
Eric: What can you tell us about this?
Udita: It’s made up of two words. There is शुरुआत suruaaT, which is a noun meaning “beginning”.
Eric: And the other word?
Udita: That is में mein, which is a particle meaning “in”. This goes after the noun.
Eric: And together it means “in the beginning”, “at the start”, or “to start off”.
Udita: We use this phrase to refer to the start of a process. शुरुआत suruaaT comes from the word शुरू suru, meaning “start” and can also be used on its own.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this word?
Udita: Sure. For example, you can say.. शुरुआत में मुझे ऐप्पल सॉफ्टवेयर इस्तेमाल करने में बहुत मुश्किल होती थी। suruaaT mein mujhe aipaL Sauftveyar iSTemaaL karNe mein bahuT muskiL hoTii THii.
Eric: ..which means "Initially, I had a lot of trouble using Apple software.” Okay, what's the next phrase?
Udita: ग्रेजुएशन करना graijuesaN karNaa
Eric: meaning "to complete post-secondary studies". Can you break this down for us?
Udita: Sure! ग्रेजुएशन graijuesaN is an English loan word and means “graduation”. The other word is करना karNaa, a transitive verb that means “to do”.
Eric: How do we use this phrase?
Udita: Although it literally means “to graduate”, we use it to say “to complete undergraduate studies”. So, it isn’t just the graduation ceremony itself, but the whole process of getting there.
Eric: So the actual studies themselves, right?
Udita: Yes. There usually aren’t high school graduation ceremonies in India, so it's understood as relating to university.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Udita: Sure. For example, you can say.. मेरी बेटी रांची के विश्वविद्यालय से ग्रेजुएशन कर रही है। merii betii raancii ke viswaviDyaaLay Se graijuesaN kar rahii hai.
Eric:... which means "My daughter is doing her undergraduate studies at Ranchi University." Okay, what's the next phrase?
Udita: में दिलचस्पी होना mein DiLcaSpii hoNaa
Eric: meaning "to be interested in"
Eric: And what can you tell us about this?
Udita: Again it uses the particle में mein, meaning “in”. There is also the noun दिलचस्पी DiLcaSpii, which means “interest”.
Eric: And by “interest” here, we mean an interest that we are passionate and emotional about, not just an interest on an intellectual level.
Udita: That’s right. The final word in the phrase is होना hoNaa, which is an intransitive verb meaning “to be”.
Eric: So altogether it means “to have an interest in”.
Udita: And like you said, it’s things that we have a deep interest in and not just a passing interest.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Udita: Sure. For example, you can say.. क्या आपको भी प्राचीन चीन के इतिहास में दिलचस्पी है? kyaa aapko bhii praaciiN ciiN ke iTihaaS mein DiLcaaSpii hai?
Eric: .. which means "Do you also have a passion for the history of ancient China?"
Eric: Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Eric: In this lesson, you'll learn how to describe your interests and goals using the active voice.
Udita: Active and passive voice are important things to know.
Eric: Yes. So let’s start by looking at the passive voice.
Udita: This is often used to talk about things that we like and dislike.
Eric: How do we say “I like doing (blank)”?
Udita: mujhe verb-Naa paSaND hai
Eric: So “I like singing” would be...
Udita: मुझे गाना पसंद है mujhe gaaNaa paSaND hai This is passive because the pronoun, "me", मुझे mujhe, is the subject and not the object of the sentence.
Eric: How do we make an active voice sentence that means the same?
Udita: मैं गाना पसंद करती हूँ main gaaNaa paSaND karTii hunn, or करता हूँ karTaa huun, for male speakers.
Eric: This is active and the main verb is not actually “sing”, it is “to do”
Udita: करती karTii or करता karTaa, yes. We use this active sentence mainly in formal Hindi. We can also use it to talk about your work and skills.
Eric: How do we make sentences in the present continuous?
Udita: If we are talking about a verb, like with "singing", it has to be in the infinitive form. If it is a noun, it must be paired with a transitive verb such as करना karNaa, “to do”.
Eric: Can you give us a couple of examples of verbs?
Udita: The verb for “to read” would be पढ़ना parhNaa and “to build” is बनाना baNaaNaa.
Eric: How about using nouns?
Udita: व्यायाम करना vyaayaam karNaa is “to do exercise” - the same as "to exercise" and ब्लॉग लिखना bLaug LikhNaa is “to write a blog” or simply "to blog".
Eric: Can you give us an example sentence?
Udita: मैं व्यायाम करना पसंद करती हूँ main vyaayaam karNaa paSanD karTii huun
Eric: “I like to exercise”.
Udita: There are other words we can use in place of पसंदpaSaND meaning "like", to express our interests or goals.
Eric: How about something like “plan on”?
Udita: That will be expressed as "desire" or "ambition". For example आकांक्षा aakaNksaa is a combination of "hope" and "aim" - more simply "ambition". What is your ambition, Eric?
Eric: Hmm, I hope to create my own company someday.
Udita: मैं अपनी कम्पनी बनाने की आकांक्षा रखता हूँ। main apNii kampaNii baNaaNe kii aakanksaa rakhTaa huun
Eric: I’ll remember that in case I decide to start a company in India!
Udita: Listeners, make sure to check the Lesson Notes for more examples and additional related vocabulary.
Eric: You’ll find useful sentence patterns for talking about your interests and goals.

Outro

Eric: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Udita: अलविदा aLviDaa