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Lesson Transcript

Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 12 - Hearing About the Past in Hindi
INTRODUCTION
Eric: Hi everyone, and welcome back to HindiPod101.com This is Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 12 - Hearing About the Past in Hindi. Eric here.
Udita: नमस्ते I'm Udita.
Eric: In this lesson, you’ll review the "used to" past tense. The conversation takes place at home.
Udita: It's between Maneesha and Ameena.
Eric: The speakers are an employer and employee, so they’ll use polite Hindi. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
मनीषा : अमीना आप घर से बस में आती हो?
अमीना : जी दीदी।
मनीषा : क्या आप बहुत सालों से वहाँ रहती हो?
अमीना : हाँ करीब तीस साल।
मनीषा : अरे वाह!
अमीना : हाँ, यह इलाका तो सब नया है। दस- बीस साल पहले बहुत कम लोग होते थे यहां।
मनीषा : अच्छा? आप काम कहाँ करती थी?
अमीना : मैं तब उत्तर की ओर जाया करती थी। अब तो बस मिलती है। उन दिनों कुछ भी नहीं होता था। मैं आधा रस्ता चलकर जाती थी।
मनीषा : बापरे! बहुत देर लगती होगी?
अमीना : हाँ करीब दो घंटे, जाने में। और फिर शाम को दोबारा दो घंटे वापिस आने में।
मनीषा : उफ़! गर्मी में भी? और शाम को अँधेरे में असुरक्षित महसूस नहीं होता था?
अमीना : हाँ इस लिए मैं दोपहर में ही निकल जाती थी। चलते हुए कभी अँधेरे में नहीं लौटती थी।
Eric: Listen to the conversation one time slowly.
मनीषा : अमीना आप घर से बस में आती हो?
अमीना : जी दीदी।
मनीषा : क्या आप बहुत सालों से वहाँ रहती हो?
अमीना : हाँ करीब तीस साल।
मनीषा : अरे वाह!
अमीना : हाँ, यह इलाका तो सब नया है। दस- बीस साल पहले बहुत कम लोग होते थे यहां।
मनीषा : अच्छा? आप काम कहाँ करती थी?
अमीना : मैं तब उत्तर की ओर जाया करती थी। अब तो बस मिलती है। उन दिनों कुछ भी नहीं होता था। मैं आधा रस्ता चलकर जाती थी।
मनीषा : बापरे! बहुत देर लगती होगी?
अमीना : हाँ करीब दो घंटे, जाने में। और फिर शाम को दोबारा दो घंटे वापिस आने में।
मनीषा : उफ़! गर्मी में भी? और शाम को अँधेरे में असुरक्षित महसूस नहीं होता था?
अमीना : हाँ इस लिए मैं दोपहर में ही निकल जाती थी। चलते हुए कभी अँधेरे में नहीं लौटती थी।
Eric: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Maneesha: Ameena, do you take the bus from home?
Ameena: Yes.
Maneesha: Have you been living there for a long time?
Ameena: Yes, around thirty years.
Maneesha: Oh wow!
Ameena: Yes, this area is all new. Ten or twenty years back there were hardly any people in this part of town.
Maneesha: Really? Where did you used to work?
Ameena: I used to go up towards the north side. Now we have buses. Back then there was nothing. I used to walk half the way.
Maneesha: Oh my goodness! It must have been very long.
Ameena: Yes, about 2 hours to get there. And then 2 hours back again in the evening.
Maneesha: Gosh! In the summer too? And did you not feel unsafe in the evening in the dark?
Ameena: Yes that's why I would just leave in the afternoon. I would never walk back in the dark.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Eric: Wow, it sounds like there were some big changes in the area that Ameena was talking about.
Udita: Yes, this kind of transformation has happened a lot all over India, in smaller towns and on the edges of big metropolitan areas, over the last couple of decades.
Eric: What kind of changes?
Udita: Cities have expanded, and malls have cropped up everywhere. In the past, India had a closed market. Products, services, and pop culture from outside of India were not available or well-known, except for the richest families or those that travelled abroad.
Eric: So the average family in India wouldn’t have known of, say, Michael Jackson?
Udita: Those in the cities would probably have known who he was, at least by name, as well as some classic MJ poses or images, but not those in rural India. And he’s probably one of the few.
Eric: And now?
Udita: Since the late 1990s, the market has completely opened up. Global chains like McDonalds, Subway, and so on have opened in the country in the past decade, cell phones are very commonplace now, and more people own TVs than before.
Eric: Does Indian TV show a wide variety of programs?
Udita: There used to be just one, state-run TV channel, but now there are hundreds of channels that often show English language TV shows and movies too.
Eric: It sounds like there has been rapid change.
Udita: Yes, and it gets faster and more dramatic with every generation.
Eric: Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Udita: करीब [natural native speed]
Eric: close to, about
Udita: करीब [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: करीब [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: उत्तर [natural native speed]
Eric: north
Udita: उत्तर [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: उत्तर [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: ओर [natural native speed]
Eric: direction
Udita: ओर [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: ओर [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: देर [natural native speed]
Eric: late
Udita: देर [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: देर [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: अँधेरा [natural native speed]
Eric: darkness
Udita: अँधेरा [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: अँधेरा [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: असुरक्क्षित [natural native speed]
Eric: unsafe
Udita: असुरक्क्षित [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: असुरक्क्षित [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Udita: महसूस [natural native speed]
Eric: feel, sensation
Udita: महसूस [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: महसूस [natural native speed]
Eric: And last..
Udita: लौटना [natural native speed]
Eric: to return, to come back
Udita: लौटना [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Udita: लौटना [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Eric: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is..
Udita: करीब kariib
Eric: meaning "close to, about." What can you tell us about this?
Udita: करीब kariib is an adverb and an adjective. As an adverb it means “close to” or “approximately” and as an adjective it means “close” or “near.”
Eric: How is it used?
Udita: It’s used with numbers. It’s often used before a number to say “approximately x number.”
Eric: Is it always placed before the number?
Udita: If you use the possessive particle ke, it can go right after. So it’d be number, के करीब ke kariib.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this word?
Udita: Sure. For example, you can say.. इस खाने में करीब सौ ग्राम मक्खन डाला जाता है। iS khaaNe mein kariib Sau graam makkhaN daaLaa jaaTaa hai.
Eric: ..which means "You put around 100 grams of butter in this food." Okay, what's the next word?
Udita: देर Der
Eric: meaning "late." What can you tell us about this?
Udita: देर Der is both an adjective and a noun, and it means “late.”
Eric: How do we use it?
Udita: You can pair it with a verb to talk about things taking time or being prolonged.
Eric: How else is it used?
Udita: To use it as an adjective, it needs to be paired with the preposition से Se.
Eric: What’s an example using this word?
Udita: You can say.. आज हम सब सुबह देर से जागे। aaj ham Sab Subah Der Se jaage.
Eric: .. which means "All of us woke up late this morning." Okay, what's the next word?
Udita: महसूस mahSuuS
Eric: meaning "feel." Can you explain this for us?
Udita: महसूस mahSuuS is a noun and means “sensation” or “feeling.”
Eric: So it doesn’t mean “emotions,” but a feeling being experienced.
Udita: Right. It’s usually used with the verbs होना hoNaa or करना karNaa. In those cases, it means something similar to “I felt that” or “I sensed that.”
Eric: Can you give us an example using this word?
Udita: Sure. For example, you can say.. सम्मलेन में मुझे बहुत अजीब सा महसूस हुआ। SammelaN mein mujhe bahuT ajiib Saa mahSuuS huaa.
Eric: .. which means "I felt very strange at the gathering." Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Eric: In this lesson, you'll learn about the past tense, or "used to." This was used a few times in the dialogue as Ameena spoke about the situation in the past.
Udita: That’s right. To make these sentences, we use a verb in the past tense followed by करते थे karTe THe, or करता था karTaa THaa, or करती थी karTii THii.
Eric: And what do those mean?
Udita: They mean the same thing, but करते थे karTe THe is the neutral formal or plural form, and it means “would do,” but when you add a past tense verb it becomes “used to do.” करता था karTaa THaa is the singular masculine and करती थी karTii THii is the feminine, singular and plural.
Eric: How do we use those with verbs?
Udita: करते थे karTe THe is used with transitive verbs, unless the object of the sentence is feminine, in which case we use करती थी karTii THii.
Eric: Okay. Do we still use that even if there is no object in the sentence?
Udita: No, if it’s a transitive verb but there is no obvious object in the sentence - like in the case of sentences in the passive voice - we use जाता था jaaTaa THaa for singular, or जाते थे jaaTe THe for plural.
Eric: What about intransitive verbs?
Udita: For those we use करता था karTaa THaa.
Eric: Is there an exception for feminine objects here, too?
Udita: Yes there is. We use करती थी karTii THii or करते थे karTe THe for plural mixed gender or when speaking respectfully.
Eric: Okay. Let’s see this in action. Can you give us an example using a transitive verb and a masculine object?
Udita: एक बूढ़े व्यक्ति यहाँ बैठा करते थे ek buurhe vyakTi yahaan baithaa karTe THe
Eric: Which means “An old man used to sit here.” Now how about an intransitive sentence?
Udita: यह शहर बहुत छोटा हुआ करता था yah sahar bahuT chotaa huaa karTaa THaa.
Eric: Which means “This town used to be very small.” There’s a lot more information about this in the lesson notes, so be sure to check them out.
Udita: So far we’ve been using the English “used to” to talk about things in the past. But in English, you can also use “would” in some instances and it has a similar meaning to “used to.”
Eric: Right. For example, “I would bike to school every day” and “I used to bike to school every day.”
Udita: In Hindi, those sentences would be मैं रोज़ साइकिल से स्कूल जाती थी main roz SaikaL Se SkuuL jaaTii THii and मैं रोज़ साइकिल से स्कूल जाया करती थी main roz SaikaL Se SkuuL jaayaa karTii THii respectively. In Hindi the meaning is similar too.
Eric: Does that mean there are some circumstances where the meaning isn’t similar in Hindi?
Udita: Yes. When you’re talking about how things were done in the past decade, era or century, then “used to” fits better.
Eric: Can you give us an example?
Udita: उन दिनों डाकिया डाक लेकर गाँव से गाँव पैदल जाया करते थे uN DiNon daakiyaa daak Lekar gaaon Se gaaon paiDaL jaayaa karTe THe. This uses “used to” and that fits better than “would.”
Eric: And that sentence means “In those days, the postman used to walk from village to village with the post.”

Outro

Eric: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time!
Udita: अलविदा alviDaa

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Hi listeners! How has your country changed in the last 20 years?