Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Notes

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Maya: "Namaste," I'm Maya. Welcome back to HindiPod101.com. This is Lower Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 14 - Learning the Oblique Forms of Hindi Pronouns.
Udita: "Namaste," I'm Udita. In this lesson, you’ll learn how to change pronouns into their oblique forms.
Maya: The conversation takes place on the road.
Udita: It's between Kate and an autorickshaw driver
Maya: Since they are strangers, they will be using formal Hindi.
Udita: Let's listen to their conversation.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya: Okay, let’s talk about transportation in India. Public transport in India is limited to local buses, metros, taxis, auto rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws.
Udita: Of these, the most convenient way to travel around the city is the auto rickshaw.
Maya: In case the listeners are wondering, what is an auto rickshaw?
Udita: Well, it’s a three-wheeler cabin cycle. You may think of it as a motorized version of the traditional pulled cycle rickshaw.
Udita: Auto rickshaws are convenient because they provide door to door service, and you don’t have to rely on a car!
Maya: Even the prices are reasonable, as long as you make sure you pay according to the meter of the rickshaw.
Udita: In small cities the metered rickshaws are a little rare, so you may need to bargain on the price before getting on it.
Maya: So keep those tips in mind! Okay, now let’s move onto the vocab.
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Maya: Let's have a closer look at the usuage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Udita: First we have चाहती.
Maya: It comes from the verb chahna which means “to want”. chahti is used by feminine subjects, it becomes chahta for masculine singular subjects and chahte for masculine plural subjects.
Udita: hoon is the verb “to be”, and is used for first person singular subjects.
Maya: So together, it becomes chahti hoon said by a female speaker, and chahta hoon said by a male speaker.
Udita: Next is another verb. बैठिये comes from the verb baithna which means “to sit”. Do you remember the lesson on making requests and commands? Baithna becomes baithiye when making a request.
Maya: So baithiye means “please sit”.
Udita: Next we have mujh ko, meaning “to me”.
Maya: Whenever we use a postposition after a pronoun, generally the pronouns change into their oblique forms.
Udita: Here, mujh is the oblique form of the pronoun main as we are using the postposition ko. So together it becomes mujhko. People often say mujhe instead of mujhko.
Maya: Next बता comes from the verb batana which means “to tell.” Dungi comes from the verb dena which means “to give”.
Udita: But in this context it does not literally translate as giving something. When it follows a verb in the second person or third person form, it means doing that thing for somebody.
Maya: For example, if we say main tumhe khila dungi, it means “I will make you eat”.
Udita: So in our conversation, we have main tumhe bata dungi which means “I will make you tell” and translates as “I will tell you”.
Maya: Okay, now onto the grammar.

Lesson focus

Maya: In this lesson, you’re going to learn the oblique form of the Hindi pronouns.
Udita: There are situations when we must change the pronouns into a different form. These are called oblique forms of pronouns. One situation is when we are using a postposition.
Maya: Remember that postpositions are like prepositions in English: “in”, “at”, “to” etc. In Hindi, they’re called postpositions because they come after the noun or pronoun.
Udita: So when we need to use a postposition after a pronoun, the pronoun changes to the oblique form.
Maya: That’s right. Some of the pronouns are joined to the postposition, while other pronouns change so that the oblique form incorporates the postposition.
Udita: Let’s go over them, starting with first person singular, “I”. First person singular is main and it changes into mujhe in its oblique form.
Maya: First Person plural, “we”, is ham and it becomes “hamen” in its oblique form
Udita: Next is second person singular, “you”, which is tum in its casual form. It changes to “tumhe” in the oblique form.
Maya: A very casual pronoun for Second Person Singular is तू . This should strictly be used in very informal situations as it may sound rude to some people. The oblique form of tu is tujhe.
Udita: The second person plural, “you all”, in formal situations is आप . aap, remains the same in the oblique, and is joined with “ko” to get “aapko”
Maya: Next let’s look at third Person Singular which is yah, and is used for “He”/”She”/”It” for people or things that are close. yah becomes इस in its oblique form.
Udita: वह is used for “He” / “She” / “It” / “That” for people or things that are Far. It becomes उस us in the oblique form.
Maya: For third Person Plural, ये ye meaning these becomes इन is the oblique form and वे meaning those becomes उन in its oblique form.
Udita: Let’s practice with an example. To say “I want a car” we’d say mujhe gaadi chaahiye.
Maya: We did not say main for the Pronoun “I” here. In this sentence for a noun we would use the postposition ko. For the pronoun “main”, there is no ‘ko’ used but it changes to mujhe.
Udita: Let’s try another one. To say, “He received a letter” we’d say ‘uSko ek chitthi milaa’.
Maya: Here the third person pronoun vah goes into its oblique form, as we are using the postposition ko.
Udita: The third person pronouns use two oblique forms when using the postposition “ko”. One includes ‘ko’ - “isko, usko, iNko, uNko”, which is more colloquial. The other, more polite form is “ise, uSe, inhe, unhe”. This is the more proper oblique form, that is used in literature.
Maya: Don’t worry about the postpositions for now. We’ll be looking at them in detail in the last few lessons of this series.
Maya: Let's see how the grammar point was used in the dialogue.
Udita: Kate says : भैया मैं लाजपत नगर जाना चाहती हूँ | bhaiya main laajpaT nagar jaana chahTii hoon which means “Excuse me, I want to go to Lajpat Nagar.”
Maya: And to this, the autodriver replies: बैठिये, लेकिन मुझे रास्ता नहीं पता| baithiye, lekin mujhe raasTa nahiin paTa which means “please sit, but I don’t know the way.”

Outro

Udita: Well, that's all for our lesson. Make sure to read the lesson notes for more examples!
Maya: Listeners, can you say “I have to go” in Hindi? If you can, please leave us a comment saying it at HindiPod101.com. Thank you for listening. Until next time!
Udita: "Shukriyaa aur fir milenge!"

7 Comments

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😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hi everyone! Did you notice the oblique forms before?

HindiPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 10:27 PM
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Hi Alice,


Thanks for posting!


You are doing great.


Keep learning!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Alice
Wednesday at 12:02 AM
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Yes :)

मुझको एक घर चाहिए लेकिन मेरे पास पैसे नहीं हैं।

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 02:02 PM
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Hi Kakembo,


Thanks for posting!


Perfect sentence! If you have any questions, feel free to let us know.


All the best!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Kakembo
Tuesday at 06:02 PM
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Mujhe jaana chahiye

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 04:46 AM
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नमस्ते (Namaste) Ryan,


बहुत शुक्रिया (bahut shukriyaa) for taking the time to leave us your like. 😇

Please let us know if you have any questions 😉


Kind regards,

लेवेन्टे (Levente)

Team HindiPod101.com

Ryan
Friday at 02:16 PM
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👍