Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Maya: Namaste, I'm Maya. Welcome back to HindiPod101.com. This is Lower Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 19 - Buying a Gift in India.
Udita: Namaste, मैं हूं उदिता। (main Udita hoon). I'm Udita. In this lesson, you’ll learn the Postposition ‘ne’.
Maya: The conversation takes place at Kanika’s place.
Udita: It's between Kate and her neighbor Kanika.
Maya: Since they are friends they will be using informal Hindi.
Udita: Let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
केट: माँ ने आज ई-मेल किया है (kaet: Maa ne aaj ee-mail liKHa hai)
कनिका : क्या लिखा है? (kanika: kyaa likHA hai?)
केट: उनको दिल्ली से सोने की बालियाँ चाहियें (kaet: unko Dilli se sone kii baaliyaan CHahiyen)
कनिका: सोना बहुत महंगा है आजकल! (kanika: sona bahuT mehangaa hai aajkal!)
Maya: Let’s hear the conversation one time slowly.
केट: माँ ने आज ई-मेल किया है (kaet: Maa ne aaj ee-mail liKHa hai)
कनिका : क्या लिखा है? (kanika: kyaa likHA hai?)
केट: उनको दिल्ली से सोने की बालियाँ चाहियें (kaet: unko Dilli se sone kii baaliyaan CHahiyen)
कनिका: सोना बहुत महंगा है आजकल! (kanika: sona bahuT mehangaa hai aajkal!)
Maya: Now let's hear it with the English translation.
केट: माँ ने आज ई-मेल किया है (kaet: Maa ne aaj ee-mail liKHa hai)
kate: Mom wrote an e-mail today.
कनिका : क्या लिखा है? (kanika: kyaa likHA hai?)
Kanika: What did she write?
केट: उनको दिल्ली से सोने की बालियाँ चाहियें (kaet: unko Dilli se sone kii baaliyaan CHahiyen)
Kate: She wants earrings from Delhi.
कनिका: सोना बहुत महंगा है आजकल! (kanika: sona bahuT mehangaa hai aajkal!)
Kanika: Gold is very expensive these days!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya Udita, what can you tell us about jewelry in India?
Udita: Indians have loved jewelry for many centuries. Jewelry is often given as a gift, which shows you how valued it is!
Maya Although the trend of men adorning themselves with jewellery has faded a lot, many still wear earrings, bracelets, and so on..
Udita That’s true, but it’s the Indian women that love jewelry the most. It even holds an auspicious significance for them.
Maya: Yes, thats right - even the poorest women will have some kind of jewelry.
Udita Jewelry is not only ornamental, but it also acts as security in times of financial crisis.
Maya It’s also considered as an auspicious gift on special occasions like childbirth and marriage.
Udita: Okay, now let’s take a look at the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Maya: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
The first word we shall see is...
Udita: माँ (maan) [natural native speed]
Maya: mother
Udita: माँ (maan) [slowly - broken down by syllable] माँ (maan) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: ई-मेल (ee-mael) [natural native speed]
Maya: e-mail
Udita: ई-मेल (ee-mael) [slowly - broken down by syllable] ई-मेल (ee-mael) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: किया (kiya) [natural native speed]
Maya: did
Udita: किया (kiya) [slowly - broken down by syllable] किया (kiya) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: लिखा (likha) [natural native speed]
Maya: wrote
Udita: लिखा (likha) [slowly - broken down by syllable] लिखा (likha) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: सोना (sona) [natural native speed]
Maya: gold
Udita: सोना (sona) [slowly - broken down by syllable] सोना (sona) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: बालियाँ (baaliyaan) [natural native speed]
Maya: earrings
Udita: बालियाँ (baaliyaan) [slowly - broken down by syllable] बालियाँ (baaliyaan) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: महंगा (mahanga) [natural native speed]
Maya: expensive
Udita: महंगा (mahanga) [slowly - broken down by syllable] महंगा (mahanga) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: आजकल (aajkal) [natural native speed]
Maya: nowadays
Udita: आजकल (aajkal) [slowly - broken down by syllable] आजकल (aajkal) [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Maya Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Udita: Some of the useful words that describe day and time in the present tense are आज which means “today” and अभी which means “now” .
Maya: And in Hindi, the word for “yesterday” is the same as the word for “tomorrow”.
Udita: The word kal means “tomorrow” when used in a future tense clause, and “yesterday” when used in a past tense clause. Next is...
Maya: चाहिए which means “want”.
Udita: Since सोने की बालियाँ meaning “gold earrings” is plural, चाहिए becomes चाहियें . Thus, चाहिए is always used with singular objects and चाहियें for plural objects.
Maya: Next is महंगा which means “expensive” .
Udita: We could add बहुत before it to mean “very expensive”.
Maya: So to mean “a little expensive”, we could add थोड़ा before महंगा.
Udita: That’s right. So it becomes थोड़ा महंगा
Maya: What is the word for “cheap/inexpensive” ?
Udita: सस्ता. Similarly, we could also add बहुत before it to mean “very cheap”.
Maya: So it becomes बहुत सस्ता
Udita: Right. Okay, now let’s look at the grammar!
GRAMMAR POINT
Maya: In this lesson, we’re going to learn the usage of the postposition ne in Hindi. It’s used to mark the subject in sentences with transitive verbs in the past tense.
Udita: For example मैंने किताब पढ़ी which means “I read a book”.
Maya: Similarly, उसने कपड़े खरीदे which means “he bought clothes”.
Udita: Whenever the objects are followed by the postposition ko, the verb remains in masculine singular form.
Maya: For example टीना ने लड़की को बुलाया which means “Tina called a girl over”.
Udita: The ne postposition is not used with the subjects of the following verbs: laanaa which means ‘to bring,’ khelnMaya which means ‘to play,’ bolnMaya: which means ‘to speak,’ and bhulnMaya which means ‘to forget.
Maya: For example, we don’t say माँ ने फल लायी to mean “mother brought fruits” .
Udita: We say, माँ फल लायी. Also, the pronouns change forms in these cases. For example, vah becomes us. Take this one for example
उस लड़की ने गाना गाया which means ”The girl sang a song”.
Maya: Did you notice that we did not say वह लड़की ने गाना गाया? That’s because the pronoun is always changed.
Udita: Similarly उस ने भाषण दिया which means “he gave a lecture”.
Maya: One thing to note is that it’s not used in constructions using the modal verbs laga, and sakna
Udita: For example to say “He started walking” , we could say vah chalne laga.
Maya: Here we did not say usne chalne laga.
Udita: Similarly with the verb sakna, the pronoun doesn’t change into its oblique form, and we do not use the postposition.
Maya: For example, “She can cook food” would be vah khaana bana sakti hai.
Udita: That’s right!
Maya: Let's see how this grammar point was used in the dialogue.
Udita: Kate says: माँ ने आज ई-मेल किया है| maa ne aaj ee mael kiya hai, which means "Mom wrote me an e-mail today”.

Outro

Maya: Well, that's all for this lesson. Be sure to read the lesson notes for more examples!
Udita: Listeners, can you say “I wrote a letter” in Hindi? If you can, please leave us a comment saying it at HindiPod101.com.
Maya: Thank you for listening. Until next time!
Udita: "Shukriyaa aur fir milenge!"

14 Comments

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😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hi everyone!

Remember the oblique forms? Let's practice here!

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 02:12 PM
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Hi Julia,


Thanks for your question!


Here are three example sentences, which might help -

She can cook food. - वह खाना बना सकती है। (vah khaaNaa baNaa SakaTii hai.)

She could cook food. - वह खाना बना सकती थी। (vah khaaNaa baNaa SakaTii THii.)

She was able to cook. - वह खाना बना सकी। (vah khaaNaa baNaa Sakii.) (means she was able to cook for the occasion or in time)


I hope this helps!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Julia
Monday at 04:08 AM
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I am very sorry, I misspelled "सकना" everywhere in my previous question..

Julia
Monday at 03:14 AM
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I am confused by the the very last example in the lesson, " "She can cook food" would be vah khaana bana sakti hai."

This is perfectly fine but it is in the present tense, not in the past! The previous discussion suggests that forming the past tense with "sakhna" would be different from the usual transitive verbs, and "ne" is not used. So I think the example we want would be "She could cook food".

Would that be "वह खाना बना सखी/ सखा (If "sakhna" was intransitive, I'd use सखी, I guess, but here I am really not sure which one to use... and if any of this is correct.) A clarification would be greatly appreciated!

Thank you!

HindiPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 03:21 PM
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Hi Paul,


Thanks for posting!


Excellent example sentence.


If you have any questions, feel free to let us know!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Paul
Saturday at 07:12 AM
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मैंने चिट्ठी लिखी.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 11:10 AM
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Hi Diaha,


Thanks for your post!


It is definitely quite interesting that your name is pronounced as "Diyaa". I am sure you are bringing light into the world too, just like a lamp does!


Now to your question, there isn't any typo here. The "Diyaa" mentioned here is the past tense of the verb "DeNaa". "main Ne uSe phaL Diyaa" (I "gave" her the fruit). No relation to the other Diyaa 😄


I hope this helps!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

DIAHA J. LEWIS
Monday at 11:23 AM
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उस ने भाषण दिया us ne bhashan Diyaa means, "He gave a lecture."

In this lesson notes example sentence, the word "Diya" is used and the translation indicates it means "gave". I am confused by this, because I know "dena" means "to give" and "diya" means "lamp". Can someone tell me if this is just a typographical error or clarify this sentence for me? Thanks!~

Fun Fact: Mera naam Diya (Diaha) hai!~😁

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 11:45 AM
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Hi Logendra,


Thanks for your post!


Could you please clarify which sentence so that we can help you?


Thanks!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Logendra Raj
Saturday at 02:12 PM
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In the following sentence from the above lesson seems to wrong? There is a difference between Hindi script and it’s R

romanisation. Please clarify. Thank you.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 06:44 PM
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Hi Casp,


I think if you are trying to say: 'I wrote a letter' then in Hindi it is: "Maine ek letter likha".

Are you trying to say something else? Let me know.


Cheers!

Manali

Team HindiPod101.com