Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Maya: Namaste, I'm Maya. Welcome back to HindiPod101.com. This is Lower Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 23 - Giving Gifts in India.
Udita: Namaste, मैं हूं उदिता। (main Udita hoon). I'm Udita. In this lesson, you'll learn how to use the postposition ko in Hindi.
Maya: The conversation takes place at the office
Udita It’s between Kate and Arti
Maya: They are friends, so they’ll be using informal Hindi.
Udita: Let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
आरती: मैने आज अमित को उपहार दिया (aarTii: maine aaj amiT ko uphaar Diyaa)
केट: क्या दिया? (kaet: kyaa Diyaa?)
आरती: एक महंगी घड़ी (AarTii: ek mahangii GHadii)
केट: वह आज बहुत खुश होगा! (kaet: vah aaj bahuT KhuSH hoga!)
Maya: Let’s hear the conversation one time slowly.
आरती: मैने आज अमित को उपहार दिया (aarTii: maine aaj amiT ko uphaar Diyaa)
केट: क्या दिया? (kaet: kyaa Diyaa?)
आरती: एक महंगी घड़ी (AarTii: ek mahangii GHadii)
केट: वह आज बहुत खुश होगा! (kaet: vah aaj bahuT KhuSH hoga!)
Maya: Now let's hear it with the English translation.
आरती: मैने आज अमित को उपहार दिया (aarTii: maine aaj amiT ko uphaar Diyaa)
arti: I gave a gift to Amit today.
केट: क्या दिया? (kaet: kyaa Diyaa?)
Kate: What did you give him?
आरती: एक महंगी घड़ी (AarTii: ek mahangii GHadii)
Arti: An expensive watch.
केट: वह आज बहुत खुश होगा! (kaet: vah aaj bahuT KhuSH hoga!)
Kate: He must be very happy today!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya: Udita, tell us more about gift giving in India.
Udita: Okay! Well, giving gifts is a very old custom in India. If you are invited to the home of an Indian friend, it would be a good idea to take the host a small gift of sweets, chocolates or fruit.
Maya: But keep in mind that alcohol might not make a good gift, as not all Indian people drink.
Udita: Since Indians consider the colors black and white inauspicious, the gift wrapping should ideally be a bright color like red, yellow or green.
Maya: That’s a good tip! Also, avoid giving gifts made out of leather to Hindus. Similarly, avoid giving gifts made of pigskin to Muslims.
Udita: Ah yes, that is good to know too.
Maya: And if you’re giving money, keep in mind that people prefer to give 101 as opposed to 100 and 1100 vs 1000, for auspicious reasons.
Maya: So keep these things in mind when you’re buying a gift for your Indian friends! Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Maya: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
The first word we shall see is...
Udita: आज (aaj) [natural native speed]
Maya: today
Udita: आज (aaj) [slowly - broken down by syllable] आज (aaj) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: उपहार (uphaar) [natural native speed]
Maya: gift/present
Udita: उपहार (uphaar) [slowly - broken down by syllable] उपहार (uphaar) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: दिया (Diyaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: gave
Udita: दिया (Diyaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable] दिया (Diyaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: महंगी (mahangii) [natural native speed]
Maya: expensive
Udita: महंगी (mahangii) [slowly - broken down by syllable] महंगी (mahangii) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: घड़ी (ghadii) [natural native speed]
Maya: watch
Udita: घड़ी (ghadii) [slowly - broken down by syllable] घड़ी (ghadii) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: खुश (khush) [natural native speed]
Maya: happy
Udita: खुश (khush) [slowly - broken down by syllable] खुश (khush) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: विश्वविद्यालय (vishvaviDyalaya) [natural native speed]
Maya: university
Udita: विश्वविद्यालय (vishvaviDyalaya) [slowly - broken down by syllable] विश्वविद्यालय (vishvaviDyalaya) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: पढ़ (padh) [natural native speed]
Maya: study
Udita: पढ़ (padh) [slowly - broken down by syllable] पढ़ (padh) [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Maya: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Udita: First we have उपहार meaning “gift”. Another very common word used is तोहफा.
Maya: yes, and speaking of gifts, what’s the next word?
Udita: महंगा , which is an adjective that means “expensive”. Adjectives in Hindi always have to agree with the noun they describe. In this case, we are referring to a watch, so mahanga becomes mahangii.
Maya: So it becomes महंगी घड़ी
Udita: Similarly, if you use महंगा with a masculine noun, it stays the same. For example, “house” in Hindi is a masculine noun. So it becomes महंगा घर.
Maya: Another common word used for “expensive” is कीमती . It is one of the non-inflecting adjectives. These adjectives never change when they are used, so they are a lot easier than Inflecting Adjectives.
Udita: Another example of a non-inflecting adjective is सुन्दर which means “beautiful”.
Maya: Ok. What’s next?
Udita: खुश means “happy” and ख़ुशी means “happiness”. The opposite of khush is dukhi. So to say “I am happy”, we’d say मैं खुश हूँ
Maya: But to say “I am sad”, we’d say मैं दुखी हूँ
Udita To show extreme happiness or distress, we can add the prefix bahut to these adjectives. So, we could say main bahut khush hoon, which means “I am very happy”.
Maya: Okay, now let’s move onto the grammar!
GRAMMAR POINT
Maya: In this lesson, you’ll learn the usage of the postposition ko in Hindi.
Udita: The postposition ko is used in different types of sentences and is placed after nouns.
Maya: In this lesson, we will focus on the 4 main situations where ko can be used.
Udita: It’s optional when used with object nouns that are followed by verbs.
Maya: For example, ghar saaf karo, which means “clean the house”. We could optionally say ghar ko saaf karo.
Udita: kitaab yahan rakho which means “keep the book here”. We could optionally say kitaab ko yahaan rakho.
Maya: Another very simple usage of ko is “to” when giving something to someone, just like we use it in English!
Udita The postposition ko is used in the [secondary object + ko + main object + verb] constructions.
Maya: For example, mai mohan ko kitaab dunga which means “I will give Mohan a book.”
Udita: We said mohan ko to mean “to Mohan”. Similarly mai radha ko gulaab dunga which means “I will give a rose to Radha”.
Maya: In situations where the verbs express a state of mind, involuntarily actions, physical experience, feelings and emotions, the structure becomes subject + ko + complement + verb.
Udita: For example, Ram ko dard hua which means “Ram felt pain”.
Maya Similarly, Sana ko khushi hui which means “Sana felt happy”.
Udita: An important thing to note is that Pronouns + ko have the following alternative forms. For example, vah + ko = usko/use, yah + ko = isko/ise
Maya: Similarly, in + ko = inko/inhẽ and un + ko = unko/unhẽ

Outro

Maya: Well, that's all for this lesson. Be sure to read the lesson notes for more examples!
Udita: Listeners, can you say “I gave mom a birthday present” in Hindi? If you can, please leave us a comment saying it at HindiPod101.com.
Maya: Thank you for listening. Until next time!
Udita: "Shukriyaa aur fir milenge!"

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