Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Notes

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Maya: Namaste, I'm Maya. Welcome back to HindiPod101.com. This is Lower Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 25 - Talking About Your Family Members in Hindi.
Udita: Namaste, मैं हूं उदिता। (main Udita hoon). I'm Udita. In this lesson, you'll learn common Hindi antonyms
Maya: The conversation takes place at the office.
Udita: It’s between Kate and Arti.
Maya: They are friends, so they’ll be speaking using informal Hindi.
Udita: Let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
केट: क्या तुम्हारा भाई तुमसे बड़ा है? (Kate: kyaa Tumhara bhaaii tumse bada hai?)
आरती : नहीं वह छोटा है (AarTii: nahiin vah chhota hai)
केट: वह क्या करता है ? (kate: vah kyaa karTa hai)
आरती : वह अमरीका के विश्वविद्यालय में पढ़ रहा है| (aarTii: vah amriika ke vishvaviDyalaya mein padh rahaa hai)
Maya: Let’s hear the conversation one time slowly.
केट: क्या तुम्हारा भाई तुमसे बड़ा है? (Kate: kyaa Tumhara bhaaii tumse bada hai?)
आरती : नहीं वह छोटा है (AarTii: nahiin vah chhota hai)
केट: वह क्या करता है ? (kate: vah kyaa karTa hai)
आरती : वह अमरीका के विश्वविद्यालय में पढ़ रहा है| (aarTii: vah amriika ke vishvaviDyalaya mein padh rahaa hai)
Maya: Now let's hear it with the English translation.
केट: क्या तुम्हारा भाई तुमसे बड़ा है? (Kate: kyaa Tumhara bhaaii tumse bada hai?)
Kate: Is your brother older than you?
आरती : नहीं वह छोटा है (AarTii: nahiin vah chhota hai)
Arti: No, he is younger.
केट: वह क्या करता है ? (kate: vah kyaa karTa hai)
Kate: What does he do?
आरती : वह अमरीका के विश्वविद्यालय में पढ़ रहा है| (aarTii: vah amriika ke vishvaviDyalaya mein padh rahaa hai)
Arti: He is studying at an American University.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Maya: Okay, so in the dialogue, Arti mentioned that her younger brother is studying at an American university. Is it common for Indian students to study or work abroad?
Udita: Yes, definitely. Hundreds of thousands of young people take the opportunity to study or work in the US, the UK, France, Germany, Australia, and so on.
Maya: I’ve heard that most of them prefer to settle down there. Some of the reasons include better pay, better facilities, and a higher standard of living.
Udita: That’s right. The US especially is a top destination for Indians.
Maya: After that, Australia and Canada seem to be the next best destinations for students and jobseekers from India.
Udita: However, over the last decade, Indian cities have also grown and pay scales have risen dramatically. But the inclination to move abroad has not lessened.
Maya: On the other hand, a reverse brain drain has also been noticed. Many reputable companies have started to send their employees to head up operations in India.
Udita Brain drain or reverse brain drain, I think this collaboration between cultures is a great learning experience in itself.
Maya: Definitely, but now let’s move on to vocab!
VOCAB LIST
Maya: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
The first word we shall see is...
Udita: तुम्हारा (Tumhaara) [natural native speed]
Maya: your
Udita: तुम्हारा (Tumhaara) [slowly - broken down by syllable] तुम्हारा (Tumhaara) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: भाई (bhaaii) [natural native speed]
Maya: brother
Udita: भाई (bhaaii) [slowly - broken down by syllable] भाई (bhaaii) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: बड़ा (badaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: big/elder
Udita: बड़ा (badaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable] बड़ा (badaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: छोटा (chhotaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: small/younger
Udita: छोटा (chhotaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable] छोटा (chhotaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: क्या (kyaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: what
Udita: क्या (kyaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable] क्या (kyaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: अमरीका (amriikaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: America
Udita: अमरीका (amriikaa) [slowly - broken down by syllable] अमरीका (amriikaa) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: विश्वविद्यालय (vishvaviDyalaya) [natural native speed]
Maya: university
Udita: विश्वविद्यालय (vishvaviDyalaya) [slowly - broken down by syllable] विश्वविद्यालय (vishvaviDyalaya) [natural native speed]
Maya: Next
Udita: पढ़ (padh) [natural native speed]
Maya: study
Udita: पढ़ (padh) [slowly - broken down by syllable] पढ़ (padh) [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Maya Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Udita: First we have तुमसे. tum means informal “you” and se means “from”. So it becomes “you from” and means “from you”.
Maya: If we add an adjective after this, the phrase can be very useful in making comparisons.
Udita: For example, if tumse is followed by the adjective lamba, it becomes tumse lamba and translates as “taller than you”.
Maya: So if I want to say “he is taller than you”, what would it be?
Udita: Simply say subject 1 + second 2 + se + adjective + hai
Maya: So I’d say vah tum se lamba hai.
Udita: Perfect! Can you guess what you would say for “Gita is more intelligent than Rita”?
Maya: geeta reeTa se samajhdaar hai?
Udita: Yes, that’s very easy. You spot the first noun in the sentence, then the second noun followed by the postposition se, then the adjective describing the comparison, then hai or hain based on the number of the noun.
Maya: But what if the subjects are plural, or if one is singular and the other is plural? Or what if the genders of both the nouns are different?
Udita: That’s a very good question. We always look at the gender and number of noun 1, or subject 1 in the sentence.
Maya: Next we have bada which means “big”. Now in the conversation, Kate asks Arti if her brother is older than her. She answers by using the opposite of bada which is chhota. Speaking of antonyms, let’s move on to the grammar point now!
GRAMMAR POINT
Maya: In this lesson we’re going to learn some common Hindi Antonyms.
Udita: An antonym is a word that has a meaning opposite to that of another word. There are a lot of common Hindi antonyms used in everyday life
Maya: In this lesson, we’ll learn some of the most common antonyms.
Udita First up are एक - अनेक
Maya: Meaning “one-many”
Udita: अच्छा - बुरा
Maya: Meaning “good- bad”
Udita: हानि- लाभ
Maya: Meaning “loss-gain”
Udita: मान -अपमान
Maya: Meaning “respect- disrespect”
Udita: घृणा - प्रेम
Maya: Meaning “hate- love”
Udita: साफ़ - गन्दा
Maya: Meaning “clean - dirty”
Udita: हार - जीत
Maya: Meaning “failure- victory”
Udita: शान्ति- अशांति
Maya: Meaning “peaceful-noisy”
Udita: अमीर- गरीब
Maya: Meaning “rich- poor”
Udita: दिन- रात
Maya: Meaning “day-night”
Udita: Learning antonyms also helps increase vocabulary in an easy way.
Maya: That’s right. But now it’s time for a quiz!
Udita: Can you guess the opposite of the sentence by changing the antonyms we just learned? वह प्रतियोगिता हार गया meaning “he lost the match”
Maya: वह प्रतियोगिता जीत गया meaning “he won the match.
Udita: वह अमीर हो गया meaning “he became rich”
Maya: वह गरीब हो गया meaning “he became poor”
Udita: वह मुझसे घृणा करता है meaning “he hates me”
Maya: वह मुझसे प्रेम करता है meaning “he loves me”
Udita: यहाँ बहुत शान्ति है meaning “its very peaceful here”
Maya: यहाँ बहुत अशांति है meaning “its very noisy here”
Udita: उसका बहुत मान हुआ meaning “he was respected a lot”
Maya: उसका बहुत अपमान हुआ meaning “he was disrespected a lot”
Udita: Did you notice how one word completely changes the entire meaning of the sentence. So choose your words wisely!

Outro

Maya: Well, that's all for our lesson. Be sure to read the lesson notes for more examples!
Udita: Listeners, do you know the antonym for कठिन in Hindi? If you do, please leave us a comment telling us what it is at HindiPod101.com.
Maya: Thank you for listening. Until next time!
Udita: "Shukriyaa aur fir milenge!"

13 Comments

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HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hi everyone!

What other anthonyms would you like to know?

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 12:38 PM
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Hi Muon,


Thanks for posting!


Did you encounter any specific issue in the vocabulary list? If yes, please share. In the meanwhile, we will take a look and update if necessary.


Thanks for your feedback!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Muon
Friday at 12:44 AM
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Compared to other apps & websites it's easy and simple to use.


One thing i like to point out is that the List in "Vocabulary" is not properly arranged.

Hope u look into the matter.


Good Luck.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 01:13 PM
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Hi Alice,


Thanks for your questions!


Here is the answer to your question:


easy - difficult (an excercise)

आसान (aaSaaN) - मुश्किल (muskiL) or कठिन (kathiN)


interesting - boring (a book, a song)

दिलचस्प (DiLacaSp) - बोरिंग (boring) or उबाऊ (ubaauu) ("Boring" is most commonly used in Hindi, but you can also use "ubaauu").


I hope this helps!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 01:07 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Kakembo,


Thanks for posting!


The antonym for "aaSaaN" (आसान) or "easy" is "muskiL (मुश्किल) or "kathiN" (कठिन) or "difficult".


I hope this helps!

Roohi

Team HindiPod101.com

Alice
Friday at 08:00 AM
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I would like to know:

easy - difficult (an excercise)

interesting - boring (a book, a song)

Kakembo
Monday at 04:46 PM
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Yes, it's "आसान"

HindiPod101.com Verified
Friday at 08:39 PM
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नमस्ते (Namaste) Yousra,


बहुत शुक्रिया (bahut shukriyaa) for taking the time to leave us your feedback!

I will forward it to our team for consideration! :)

Please let us know if you have any questions


Kind regards,

लेवेन्टे (Levente)

Team HindiPod101.com

Yousra
Thursday at 01:59 AM
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Namaste,

The Multiple check tool after the lesson is a wonderful tool! Thank you! Could you please add it to the lessons in the next levels too as it is a great help for study?

HindiPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 10:44 PM
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नमस्ते (Namaste) Ryan,


Yes, those are included in the Lesson Notes PDFs. 😉


Kind regards,

लेवेन्टे (Levente)

Team HindiPod101.com

Ryan
Friday at 04:05 PM
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its good that there is audio but I cannot see the coversations and grammer in Lesson Transcript.