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Lesson Transcript

Maya: Namaste, I'm Maya. Welcome back to HindiPod101.com. This is Lower Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 25 - Talking About Your Family Members in Hindi.
Udita: Namaste, मैं उदिता हूँ। (main uDiTaa huun.). I'm Udita. In this lesson, you'll learn common Hindi antonyms.
Maya: The conversation takes place at the office.
Udita: It’s between Kate and Arti.
Maya: They are friends, so they’ll be speaking using informal Hindi.
Udita: Let's listen to the conversation.
केट (ket): क्या तुम्हारा भाई तुमसे बड़ा है? (kyaa Tumhaara bhaaii TumaSe badaa hai?)
आरती (aaraTii): नहीं, वह छोटा है। (Nahiin, vah chotaa hai.)
केट (ket): वह क्या करता है? (vah kyaa karaTaa hai?)
आरती (aaraTii): वह अमेरिका के विश्वविद्यालय में पढ़ रहा है। (vah amerikaa ke visvaviDyaaLay men padh rahaa hai.)
Maya: Let’s hear the conversation one time slowly.
केट (ket): क्या तुम्हारा भाई तुमसे बड़ा है? (kyaa Tumhaara bhaaii TumaSe badaa hai?)
आरती (aaraTii): नहीं, वह छोटा है। (Nahiin, vah chotaa hai.)
केट (ket): वह क्या करता है? (vah kyaa karaTaa hai?)
आरती (aaraTii): वह अमेरिका के विश्वविद्यालय में पढ़ रहा है। (vah amerikaa ke visvaviDyaaLay men padh rahaa hai.)
Maya: Now let's hear it with the English translation.
केट (ket): क्या तुम्हारा भाई तुमसे बड़ा है? (kyaa Tumhaara bhaaii TumaSe badaa hai?)
Kate: Is your brother older than you?
आरती (aaraTii): नहीं, वह छोटा है। (Nahiin, vah chotaa hai.)
Arti: No, he is younger.
केट (ket): वह क्या करता है? (vah kyaa karaTaa hai?)
Kate: What does he do?
आरती (aaraTii): वह अमेरिका के विश्वविद्यालय में पढ़ रहा है। (vah amerikaa ke visvaviDyaaLay men padh rahaa hai.)
Arti: He is studying at an American University.
Maya: Okay, so in the dialogue, Arti mentioned that her younger brother is studying at an American university. Is it common for Indian students to study or work abroad?
Udita: Yes, definitely. Hundreds of thousands of young people take the opportunity to study or work in the US, the UK, France, Germany, Australia, and so on.
Maya: I’ve heard that most of them prefer to settle down there. Some of the reasons include better pay, better facilities, and a higher standard of living.
Udita: That’s right. The US especially is a top destination for Indians.
Maya: After that, Australia and Canada seem to be the next best destinations for students and jobseekers from India.
Udita: However, over the last decade, Indian cities have also grown and pay scales have risen dramatically. But the inclination to move abroad has not lessened.
Maya: On the other hand, a reverse brain drain has also been noticed. Many reputable companies have started to send their employees to head up operations in India.
Udita: Brain drain or reverse brain drain, I think this collaboration between cultures is a great learning experience in itself.
Maya: Definitely, but now let’s move on to vocab!
Maya: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word we shall see is...
Udita: तुम्हारा (Tumhaaraa).
Maya: "your."
Udita: तुम्हारा (Tumhaaraa), तुम्हारा (Tumhaaraa).
Maya: Next...
Udita: भाई (bhaaii).
Maya: "brother."
Udita: भाई (bhaaii), भाई (bhaaii).
Maya: Next...
Udita: बड़ा (badaa).
Maya: "big /elder."
Udita: बड़ा (badaa), बड़ा (badaa).
Maya: Next...
Udita: छोटा (chotaa).
Maya: "small /younger."
Udita: छोटा (chotaa), छोटा (chotaa).
Maya: Next...
Udita: क्या (kyaa).
Maya: "what."
Udita: क्या (kyaa), क्या (kyaa).
Maya: Next...
Udita: अमेरिका (amerikaa).
Maya: "America."
Udita: अमेरिका (amerikaa), अमेरिका (amerikaa).
Maya: Next...
Udita: विश्वविद्यालय (visvaviDyaaLay).
Maya: "university."
Udita: विश्वविद्यालय (visvaviDyaaLay), विश्वविद्यालय (visvaviDyaaLay).
Maya: Next...
Udita: पढ़ (padh).
Maya: "study."
Udita: पढ़ (padh), पढ़ (padh).
Maya: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Udita: First, we have तुमसे (TumaSe). तुम (Tum) means informal "you" and से (Se) means "from." So it becomes "you from" and means "from you."
Maya: If we add an adjective after this, the phrase can be very useful in making comparisons.
Udita: For example, if तुमसे (TumaSe) is followed by the adjective लम्बा (Lambaa), it becomes तुमसे लम्बा (TumaSe Lambaa) and translates as "taller than you."
Maya: So, if I want to say "he is taller than you," what would it be?
Udita: Simply say subject 1 plus second 2 plus से (Se) plus adjective plus है (hai).
Maya: So, I’d say वह तुमसे लम्बा है। (vah TumaSe Lambaa hai.).
Udita: Perfect! Can you guess what you would say for "Gita is more intelligent than Rita?"
Maya: गीता रीटा से समझदार है। (giiTaa riitaa Se SamajhaDaar hai.)
Udita: Yes, that’s very easy. You spot the first noun in the sentence, then the second noun followed by the postposition से (Se), then the adjective describing the comparison, then है (hai) or हैं (hain) based on the number of the noun.
Maya: But what if the subjects are plural, or if one is singular and the other is plural? Or what if the genders of both the nouns are different?
Udita: That’s a very good question. We always look at the gender and number of noun 1, or subject 1 in the sentence.
Maya: Next we have बड़ा (badaa) which means "big." Now in the conversation, Kate asks Arti if her brother is older than her. She answers by using the opposite of बड़ा (badaa) which is छोटा (chotaa). Speaking of antonyms, let’s move on to the grammar point now!
Maya: In this lesson we’re going to learn some common Hindi antonyms.
Udita: An antonym is a word that has a meaning opposite to that of another word. There are a lot of common Hindi antonyms used in everyday life.
Maya: In this lesson, we’ll learn some of the most common antonyms.
Udita: First up are एक (ek) - अनेक (aNek).
Maya: Meaning "one-many."
Udita: अच्छा (acchaa) - बुरा (buraa).
Maya: Meaning "good-bad."
Udita: हानि (haaNi) - लाभ (Laabh).
Maya: Meaning "loss-gain."
Udita: मान (maaN) - अपमान (apamaaN).
Maya: Meaning "respect-disrespect."
Udita: घृणा (ghrinaa) - प्रेम (prem).
Maya: Meaning "hate-love."
Udita: साफ़ (Saaf) - गन्दा (gaNDaa).
Maya: Meaning "clean-dirty."
Udita: हार (haar) - जीत (jiiT).
Maya: Meaning "failure-victory."
Udita: शांति (saaNTi) - अशांति (asaaNTi).
Maya: Meaning "peaceful-noisy."
Udita: अमीर (amiir) - ग़रीब (gariib).
Maya: Meaning "rich-poor."
Udita: दिन (DiN) - रात (raaT).
Maya: Meaning "day-night."
Udita: Learning antonyms also helps increase vocabulary in an easy way.
Maya: That’s right. But now it’s time for a quiz!
Udita: Can you guess the opposite of the sentence by changing the antonyms we just learned? वह प्रतियोगिता हार गया। (vah praTiyogiTaa haar gayaa.) meaning "He lost the match."
Maya: वह प्रतियोगिता जीत गया। (vah praTiyogiTaa jiiT gayaa.) meaning "He won the match."
Udita: वह अमीर हो गया। (vah amiir ho gayaa.) meaning "He became rich."
Maya: वह ग़रीब हो गया। (vah gariib ho gayaa.) meaning "He became poor."
Udita: वह मुझसे घृणा करता है। (vah mujhaSe ghrinaa karaTaa hai.) meaning "He hates me."
Maya: वह मुझसे प्रेम करता है। (vah mujhaSe prem karaTaa hai.) meaning "He loves me."
Udita: यहाँ बहुत शांति है। (yahaan bahuT saaNTi hai.) meaning "Its very peaceful here."
Maya: यहाँ बहुत अशांति है। (yahan bahuT asaaNTi hai.) meaning "Its very noisy here."
Udita: उसका बहुत मान हुआ। (uSakaa bahuT maaN huaa.) meaning "He was respected a lot."
Maya: उसका बहुत अपमान हुआ। (uSakaa bahuT apamaaN huaa.) meaning "He was disrespected a lot."
Udita: Did you notice how one word completely changes the entire meaning of the sentence. So choose your words wisely!


Maya: Well, that's all for our lesson. Be sure to read the lesson notes for more examples!
Udita: Listeners, do you know the antonym for कठिन (kathiN) in Hindi? If you do, please leave us a comment telling us what it is at HindiPod101.com.
Maya: Thank you for listening. Until next time!
Udita: शुक्रिया और फिर मिलेंगे! (sukriyaa aur phir miLenge!)