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Lesson Transcript

Maya: "Namaste," I'm Maya. Welcome back to HindiPod101.com. This is Lower Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 5 - Giving Commands and Orders in Hindi.
Udita: "Namaste," I'm Udita. In this lesson, you'll learn how to ask someone to do something.
Maya: The conversation takes place inside a temple.
Udita: It's between the priest and Kate, who is visiting a Hindu temple for the first time.
Maya: Since they are strangers, they will be using formal Hindi.
Udita: Let's listen to the conversation.
Maya: Ok, let’s talk some more about temples! There are several rituals and practices that are followed inside a temple.
Udita: The main Hindu ritual is called Aartii, wherein light from wicks soaked in ghee, which is purified butter, is offered to the gods.
Maya: During Aartii, many devotees assemble in the temple and sing bhajans or holy chants to express their devotion towards God.
Udita: One more thing that’s important when it comes to Hindu temples is Darshan, meaning “to be
able to sight” or “catch a glimpse of God.”
Maya: People in India would be willing to travel hundreds of kilometers just for the darshan. They feel blessed after it.
Udita: I like to go to the temple every morning just to feel the positive vibrations it gives!
Maya: I’ve also heard the term ‘Puja’ a lot of times.
Udita: Yes, Puja is also an important ritual that a lot of people like to perform every morning after having a bath. It could involve chanting a particular mantra.
Maya: From all of this information, we can really see the religious and spiritual side of Indians!
Udita: Definitely.
Maya: Ok, now let’s move onto the vocab!
Maya: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson. First we have बेटा, which means “son” in English. But it may also used by an elder person to address a younger person, boy or girl, in Hindi.
Udita: It can be commonly used by strangers who are your elders, and don’t know your name. It is a polite and affectionate way of informally addressing someone who is younger than you. What’s next?
Maya: नहीं , which means means “no.” It can also mean “don’t” depending on its usage in the sentence.
Udita: Similarly, मत can also be used to stop someone from doing something.
Maya: नहीं करो We could also say मत करो
Udita: which means “don’t do it.”
Maya: नहीं खाओ. We could also say मत खाओ
Udita: which means “don’t eat.”
Maya: नहीं खेलो or मत खेलो
Udita: which means “don’t play”.
Maya: Ok, one last example. नहीं बोलो or मत बोलो
Udita: Which means “don't speak”. Okay and with that, let’s move onto the grammar!

Lesson focus

Maya: In this lesson, you’re going to learn how to make a command in Hindi.
Udita: Such actions are restricted to the future and cannot refer to the present or past tenses.
Maya: Also since commands and orders are always given to another person, the subject is always
second person.
Udita: Sometimes the subject is omitted and can be guessed from both the context
and the form of the verb.
Maya: The subject is generally addressed by the familiar second-person pronoun tum meaning ‘you.’
Udita: The second person subject may sometimes be addressed with the intimate pronoun tu meaning ‘you.’ This should be used only with friends, someone younger than you, or someone you are very close to.
Maya: In familiar forms, when we use tum to address the subject, the general rule is to add- o to the root of the verb.
Udita: So पीना becomes पीओ. पीना means “to drink.” The root of the verb piina is pii. We simply add oo to the root of the verb. It becomes पीओ which means asking someone to drink.
Maya: Similarly, to ask someone to read, we’d say
Udita: पढ़ो. पढ़ना means “to read.” The root of the verb is पढ़. Simply add ओ to it.
Maya: Let’s practice with some examples. खेलना becomes
Udita: खेलो. Which means “play.”
Maya: लिखना becomes
Udita: लिखो. Which means “write.”
Maya: बैठना becomes
Udita: बैठो which means “sit.”
Maya: जाना becomes
Udita: जाओ which means “go.”
Maya: Yes, it’s that easy! However, there a few exceptions.
Udita: Like लेना becomes लो which means “take”.
Maya: Similarly देना becomes दो which means “Give”.
Udita: In the above forms, -o is added to the vowel-ending verb stems
Maya: what if we are using the tu pronoun?
Udita: As you probably know by now, the pronoun तू is only ever used in very intimate situations, otherwise it is considered disrespectful and rude. Also, even in close relationships people prefer using tum.
Maya: But just so you know, the rule is probably the easiest. We simply use the verb root itself, so we don’t add anything at all.
Udita: So पढ़ना becomes पढ़ .
Maya: And खेलना becomes खेल.
Maya: Let's see how this grammar point was used in the dialogue.
Udita: The priest says बेटा यहाँ तस्वीर नहीं खीचो| beta yahaab Tasveer nahiin kheecho, which means "don’t click pictures here".
Maya: Then the priest says यह लो प्रसाद| अपना सीधा हाथ आगे लाओ | yah lo prasaaD. apnaa seedha haath aage laao, which means “Take this blessed food. bring your right hand forward..”


Udita: Okay, that's all we have for this lesson.
Maya: Please make sure you read the lesson notes for more explanations and examples on this topic!
Udita: Listeners, how would you ask someone to “get up” in Hindi? Tell us in a comment at HindiPod101.com!
Maya: Thank you for listening. Until next time!
Udita: "Shukriyaa aur fir milenge!"