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Lesson Transcript

Brandon: Hi everyone. I'm Brandon and welcome to HindiPod101.com. This is Upper Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 1 Being Done with the Day in India.
Ayesha : Namaste, I'm Ayesha.
Brandon: In this lesson, you'll learn about using auxiliary verbs for completed verb actions. This conversation takes place in an office.
Ayesha: Suchitra and Priya are colleagues at the office.
Brandon: Since they’re colleagues, they'll be using familiar Hindi. Let’s listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Suchitra: मिल गया!
Priya: क्या ढूंढ रहे थे?
Suchitra: मेरी गाड़ी की चाबी नहीं मिल रही थी।
Priya: अच्छा, तो अब वापस जा रहे हो?
Suchitra: हाँ, आज का काम ख़त्म कर लिया, बाकी कल देखेंगे। आप कब तक यहाँ हो?
Priya: पता नहीं। कल की मीटींग कि तैयारी बाकी है, खतम करके ही घर जाउंगी।
Suchitra: हाँ वो तो है। ठीक है, आपका काम जल्दी पूरा हो जाए। मैं चलती हुँ फिर।
Priya: हाँ, कल मिलेंगे।
Brandon: Let’s hear the conversation one time slowly.
Suchitra: मिल गया!
Priya: क्या ढूंढ रहे थे?
Suchitra: मेरी गाड़ी की चाबी नहीं मिल रही थी।
Priya: अच्छा, तो अब वापस जा रहे हो?
Suchitra: हाँ, आज का काम ख़त्म कर लिया, बाकी कल देखेंगे। आप कब तक यहाँ हो?
Priya: पता नहीं। कल की मीटींग कि तैयारी बाकी है, खतम करके ही घर जाउंगी।
Suchitra: हाँ वो तो है। ठीक है, आपका काम जल्दी पूरा हो जाए। मैं चलती हुँ फिर।
Priya: हाँ, कल मिलेंगे।
Brandon: Now let’s hear it with the English translation.
Suchitra: मिल गया!
Brandon: Found it!
Priya: क्या ढूंढ रहे थे?
Brandon: What were you looking for?
Suchitra: मेरी गाड़ी की चाबी नहीं मिल रही थी।
Brandon: I couldn't find my car keys.
Priya: अच्छा, तो अब वापस जा रहे हो?
Brandon: Okay, so you're heading home now?
Suchitra: हाँ, आज का काम ख़त्म कर लिया, बाकी कल देखेंगे। आप कब तक यहाँ हो?पता नहीं।
Brandon: Yes, I'm done for the day; I'll do the rest tomorrow. How long are you planning to stay here?
Priya: पता नहीं। कल की मीटींग कि तैयारी बाकी है, खतम करके ही घर जाउंगी।
Brandon: Not sure. I need to finish prepping for tomorrow's meeting. I won't go home until that's done.
Suchitra: हाँ वो तो है। ठीक है, आपका काम जल्दी पूरा हो जाए। मैं चलती हुँ फिर।
Brandon: Oh yes, of course. Okay, I hope it gets done quickly. I'm going to get going.
Priya: हाँ, कल मिलेंगे।
Brandon: Yes, see you tomorrow.
Brandon: In the conversation, Suchitra says she’s done with work and ready to go home. That’s a feeling of relief that I’m sure everyone can relate to.
Ayesha: Yes, absolutely! Work deadlines can be quite stressful. People have many different ways to celebrate the end of projects.
Brandon: That’s true. It seems that people also have many elaborate rituals for starting big projects.
Ayesha: Right. Any new work comes with risks, so people in India may have rituals where they ask for the blessings of the gods, or of the elder members of their family or community. For example, many people break fresh coconuts on the ground or give sweets to their community members.
Brandon: And there are many famous Muslim mosques and shrines or tombs of Sufi saints where people go before the start of an important new phase. Okay, now let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Brandon: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word is...
Ayesha: ढूंढना [natural native speed]
Brandon: to find, to search
Ayesha: ढूंढना [slowly - broken down by syllable] ढूंढना [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next we have...
Ayesha: चाबी [natural native speed]
Brandon: key, keys
Ayesha: चाबी [slowly - broken down by syllable] चाबी [natural native speed]
Brandon: Our next word is...
Ayesha: वापस [natural native speed]
Brandon: return, again
Ayesha: वापस [slowly - broken down by syllable] वापस [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next...
Ayesha: ख़तम [natural native speed]
Brandon: finished, complete
Ayesha: ख़तम [slowly - broken down by syllable] ख़तम [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next we have...
Ayesha: बाकी [natural native speed]
Brandon: remaining, left
Ayesha: बाकी [slowly - broken down by syllable] बाकी [natural native speed]
Brandon: The next one is...
Ayesha: तैयारी [natural native speed]
Brandon: preparation
Ayesha: तैयारी [slowly - broken down by syllable] तैयारी [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next...
Ayesha: पूरा [natural native speed]
Brandon: complete
Ayesha: पूरा [slowly - broken down by syllable] पूरा [natural native speed]
Brandon: And our last vocabulary is...
Ayesha: चलती हूँ [natural native speed]
Brandon: I’ll be off, I’m leaving
Ayesha: चलती हूँ [slowly - broken down by syllable] चलती हूँ [natural native speed]
Brandon: Let’s take a look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from the lesson.
Ayesha: The first word is baakii, which means “remaining” or “left over.”
Brandon: When you use this word after a noun, it means that the object is leftover.
Ayesha: For example, khaaNaa baakii hai means, “Food is leftover,” because khaaNaa is a noun meaning “food.”
Brandon: If you use it after a verb in the infinitive form, it can mean that the action has yet to be done or it’s incomplete. For example, if you hear...
Ayesha: LikhNaa baakii hai
Brandon: It can mean that something has yet to be written, or that there's still some writing left to do.
Ayesha: Right. Here's an example. हमारा जैसलमेर में घूमना बाक़ी है| (hamaaraa jaiSaLmer mein ghuumNaa baakii hai). घूमना (ghuumNaa) means “to travel.” And since jaiSaLmer is a place in the state of Rajasthan, this means, “We have yet to travel to Jaisalmer,” or “We have some travelling in Jaisalmer left to do.”
Brandon: If you put this verb before a noun, it acts as an adverb.
Ayesha: For example, बाक़ी काम (baakii kaam) in the conversation means “the remaining work” or “leftover work.”
Brandon: What’s the next word?
Ayesha: The next word is वापस (vaapaS).
Brandon: This means “back” or “again.” Sometimes it's a combination of both of these words.
Ayesha: When you use it with the verbs aaNaa, meaning “to come;” jaaNaa, “to go;” LeNaa, “to take;” DeNaa, “to give,” and caLNaa, “to walk,” the word vaapaS will mean “back.”
Brandon: With most other verbs, it usually means “again.” Ayesha, can you give us an example sentence?
Ayesha: Sure! घर वापस जाना (ghar vaapaS jaaNaa) It means “to return home” or “to go back home,” but vaapaS DekhNaa means “to see again,” and vaapaS baNaaNaa means “to make again.” The exception is with the verb karNaa, which means “to do.” vaapaS karNaa can have two meanings: vaapaS karo can mean “Do it again,” or it can mean, “Give it back.”
Brandon: To use it correctly, make sure you know the situation to figure out which meaning it has. Okay, now let’s move on to the grammar.

Lesson focus

Brandon: In this lesson you’ll learn about the Hindi auxiliary verbs used for completed actions. In Hindi grammar, there's a difference between an action that's ongoing and one that's momentary. It's often necessary to show when an ongoing action is finished.
Ayesha: This is the job of auxiliary verbs.
Brandon: If you consider actions like washing, eating, sleeping, or reading—these are all actions that can last a while.
Ayesha: To indicate that the task is finished, we use the auxiliary verbs jaaNaa and LeNaa.
Brandon: Since they're being used as auxiliaries, their own meaning is not functional.
Ayesha: jaaNaa is used with intransitive verbs and LeNaa is used with transitive verbs.
Brandon: A simple example is with food. “To eat” in Hindi is...
Ayesha: ...khaaNaa.
Brandon: And if you use this verb, you could be talking about a piece of something, a bite, or a part. But if you add the auxiliary verb, we get the sense that you ate an entire meal.
Ayesha: Right. So if I say maiNe khaayaa, this just means “I ate,” but it’s not clear what I ate, and how much I ate. But if I say maiNe khaa Liya, then it clearly means that “I have eaten.” So I had my meal, or I had my part, and I’ve finished eating for the time being.
Brandon: Here’s another situation with the same verbs. If I see that you’re hungry and haven’t eaten anything for a while, I might say, “You should eat something.” But let’s say I see you working into the night, and it’s past your dinnertime but you still haven’t eaten, I would say, “You should have your dinner.”
Ayesha: Yes, and in the first situation you’d say, Tumhe kuch khaaNaa caahie. Kuch is “something” and khaaNaa caahie means “should eat,” so the sentence means, “You should eat something.” This could be a snack that will hold you for awhile.
Brandon: Right. But in the second situation, you can say...
Ayesha: Tumhe khaa LeNaa caahie.
Brandon: Here, I don’t even need to say “dinner,” because the verb phrase...
Ayesha: ...khaa LeNaa...
Brandon: ...automatically shows I’m talking about a whole meal, and about finishing eating. This is like saying, “You should finish eating.”
Ayesha: You can see this applied to other transitive verbs with LeNaa.
Brandon: Can you give us an example?
Ayesha: Sure. For example SocNaa means “to think.” Soc LeNaa is “to decide,” because “to finish thinking” is the same as deciding something or “making up your mind.” Similarly, you can use Lenaa with the verb DekhNaa, which means “to see.” Dekh LeNaa means “to spot,” as in spotting something you were looking for, or if someone was trying to hide from you.
Brandon: Are there other verbs like this one?
Ayesha: Yes. There are also verbs like khoLNaa and NikaLNaa, which need LeNaa to complete the action. khoLNaa means “to open,” in the sense of “to be opening something.” The action is ongoing unless you say khoL LeNaa, which means “to fully open.”
Brandon: So while you're trying to open a cover or lid you’ll say...
Ayesha: ...main khoL rahii huun...
Brandon: ...which means, “I'm opening it.” But if you’ve managed to open it, you should say...
Ayesha: ...maiNe khoL Liyaa.
Brandon: ...which is the correct Hindi sentence for “I opened it.”
Ayesha: And the same is true for NikaaLNaa, which means “to take something out.” NikaaL LeNaa means “to fully extract.”
Brandon: Listeners, make sure to check out the lesson notes, where you can find more examples with intransitive verbs...
Ayesha: ...using jaaNaa.


Brandon: Well, that’s all for this lesson. Thanks for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time. Bye!
Ayesha: Sukriyaa aur aLviDaa!


Please to leave a comment.
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HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
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Hi Listeners! What do you usually do after work/school? *Try answering in Hindi.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Friday at 08:41 PM
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Hi Sean,

Thanks for answering the question!

Very good try :) Just a few corrections:

स्कूल के बाद मैं खाना खाता हूँ, फिर पढ़ाई करता हूँ

I hope this helps!


Team HindiPod101.com

Sean Hocker
Friday at 01:29 PM
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स्कूल की बाद मैं खाना लेता फिर पड़ाई करता हूँ

HindiPod101.com Verified
Saturday at 02:12 PM
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Hi Paul,

Thanks for posting!

Here are a few examples that may help:

मैं आऊँ तो दरवाज़ा खोल देना। (main aauun To Daravaazaa khoL DeNaa.) - Open the door when I come.

वह दरवाज़ा खोलने वाला था कि उसकी माँ ने उसे रोक दिया। (vah Daravaazaa khoLaNe vaaLaa THaa ki uSakii maan Ne uSe rok Diyaa.) - He was about to open the door when his mother stopped him.

दरवाज़ा मैंने खोला था। (Daravaazaa mainNe khoLaa THaa.) - I opened the door.

जब मैंने उसे पकड़ा तो वह दरवाज़ा खोल रहा था। (jab mainNe uSe pakadaa To vah Daravaazaa khoL rahaa THaa. - He was opening the door when I caught him.

I hope this helps!


Team HindiPod101.com

Wednesday at 09:40 AM
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I understand verbs can mean complete or ongoing actions, but then why are there perfect verbs? For instance I understand खोल लेना. But then why is there a past tense of खोलना, खोला? Does that mean I was opening in the past but I didn't complete it or a simple past, opened with no indication of completion? How about खोल रहा था? That means I was opening? So then what is the past tense for (खोला खोली खोले) ?


HindiPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 12:33 PM
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Hi Arpine,

Thanks for your post!

You are making excellent progress, keep learning!


Team HindiPod101.com

Sunday at 10:34 PM
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काम ख़तम कर लेने के बाद मैं एक और काम करना शरू करती हूं। या फिर कभी कभी मैं फिल्म देखती हूं।

Wednesday at 08:03 PM
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Hi Ian,

That is excellent!

Just one minor tip. In Hindi, we generally say "kaam khaTm kar Lene ke baaD" (after finishing work).

If you have any questions, feel free to post here.

All the best!


Team HindiPod101.com

Saturday at 09:15 AM
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काम खत्म कर लेने पर, मैं भी आराम करता हूँ।

On having finished work, I rest as well.

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 11:55 PM
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Hello Alicia,

Thank you for your question. The "rahe THe" form is the more polite form of addressing which goes with the pronoun "aap" so it is sometimes used with women as well in a gender-neutral manner.

You can also use this website to type in the Hindi Devanagari script phonetically as well: http://mylanguages.org/hindi_write.php



Team HindiPod101.com

Monday at 03:18 PM
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नमस्ते अलिसीआ,

Hi Alicia,

सुचित्रा आदमी का नाम है।

Suchitra is a man's name.

हालाँकि दो औरतें आपस में बोल रही हैं फिर भी एक औरत एक आदमी होने का नाटक कर रही है।

Although two women are speaking, a woman is pretending to be a man.

इसिलिये प्रिया सुचित्रा से पूछती है कि 'क्या ढूँढ रहे थे'।

Therefore Priya asks Suchitra 'What are you looking for?'

आप देवनागारी की लिपि के उपयोग करने में इंटर्नेट से डाउनलॉड कर सकती हैं।

You can download the Devangari script from the Internet.

या फिर विंडॉज़ सेटिंग्स में।

Or in Windows Settings.