Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Brandon: Hello, I'm Brandon and welcome back to HindiPod101.com. This is Upper Beginner, season 1, Lesson 8: Don’t Spoil Your Appetite Before a Big Indian Feast!
Ayesha: Namaste, I'm Ayesha.
Brandon: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use the perfect tenses in Hindi. This conversation takes place in a car at a fast food drive-through.
Ayesha: The speakers are two friends, Sameer and Riya, sitting in the car.
Brandon: Since they're friends, they'll be using familiar Hindi.
Ayesha: Let’s listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Sameer: भैया एक कोल्ड कॉफ़ी दीजिए। अौर तुम क्या लोगी?
Riya: हाँ, मुझे एक चिकन सैंडविच, चीज़ टोस्त अौर एक बनाना मिल्कशेक।
Sameer: अरे सैंडविच वगेरा मत मंगाअो! थोड़ी देर में पूजा के घर पँहुचेंगे तब खाना पड़ेगा।
Riya: हँा तो अभी थोड़ा वक्त है न?
Sameer: बस अाधा घंटा दूर है।
Riya: लेकिन क्या पता कितना वक्त लगे ?
Sameer: अांटी ने क्या कुछ बना रखा है, पूजा बता रही थी। खाने के लिए जगह बचा के रखो।
Riya: अच्छा, तो अाप चिकन सैंडविच रहने दीजिए। बस ये कोल्ड कॉफ़ी अौर मिल्कशेक दे दीजिए।
English Host: Let’s hear the conversation one time slowly.
Sameer: भैया एक कोल्ड कॉफ़ी दीजिए। अौर तुम क्या लोगी?
Riya: हाँ, मुझे एक चिकन सैंडविच, चीज़ टोस्त अौर एक बनाना मिल्कशेक।
Sameer: अरे सैंडविच वगेरा मत मंगाअो! थोड़ी देर में पूजा के घर पँहुचेंगे तब खाना पड़ेगा।
Riya: हँा तो अभी थोड़ा वक्त है न?
Sameer: बस अाधा घंटा दूर है।
Riya: लेकिन क्या पता कितना वक्त लगे ?
Sameer: अांटी ने क्या कुछ बना रखा है, पूजा बता रही थी। खाने के लिए जगह बचा के रखो।
Riya: अच्छा, तो अाप चिकन सैंडविच रहने दीजिए। बस ये कोल्ड कॉफ़ी अौर मिल्कशेक दे दीजिए।
English Host: Now let’s hear it with the English translation.
Sameer: भैया एक कोल्ड कॉफ़ी दीजिए। अौर तुम क्या लोगी?
Brandon: I'd like one Iced coffee. And what will you have?
Riya: हाँ, मुझे एक चिकन सैंडविच, चीज़ टोस्त अौर एक बनाना मिल्कशेक।
Brandon: Yes, I'd like one chicken sandwich, a cheese toast, and one banana milkshake.
Sameer: अरे सैंडविच वगेरा मत मंगाअो! थोड़ी देर में पूजा के घर पँहुचेंगे तब खाना पड़ेगा।
Brandon: Don't order a sandwich and stuff! We're going to reach Pooja's house soon, and we'll have to eat a lot then.
Riya: हँा तो अभी थोड़ा वक्त है न?
Brandon: Yes, but there's still some time left till we arrive, right?
Sameer: बस अाधा घंटा दूर है।
Brandon: We're just a half an hour away.
Riya: लेकिन क्या पता कितना वक्त लगे ?
Brandon: But who knows how long it will take?
Sameer: अांटी ने क्या कुछ बना रखा है, पूजा बता रही थी। खाने के लिए जगह बचा के रखो।
Brandon: Pooja was telling me that Auntie has cooked all kinds of dishes. You should save your appetite.
Riya: अच्छा, तो अाप चिकन सैंडविच रहने दीजिए। बस ये कोल्ड कॉफ़ी अौर मिल्कशेक दे दीजिए।
Brandon: Okay. So you can leave out the sandwich and cheese toast. Just a iced coffee and a milkshake then.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Brandon: Wow, it sounds like Pooja’s mother—who the girls call Auntie—is cooking up a storm for the guests coming over. Is there a reason why Indian people welcome their guests so warmly?
Ayesha: It may be a little different from family to family, but in general, it’s the custom in India to give guests special treatment. There are many old stories and mythologies on this theme.
Brandon: Ah yes, I’ve heard one story, which is the one about Sudama, who was an extremely poor man in ancient times that went hungry to serve his friend Krishna, who was visiting his home. Even though he did this with no expectations, his friend, who had become wealthy, rewarded him richly for his generosity.
Ayesha: That’s a story most Indian children are familiar with! These stories show the importance of hospitality in saving a person’s honor in Indian culture.
Brandon: Okay, now lets move on to the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Brandon: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word is...
Ayesha: वगेरा [natural native speed]
Brandon: et cetera
Ayesha: वगेरा [slowly - broken down by syllable] वगेरा [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next we have...
Ayesha: मत [natural native speed]
Brandon: not, don’t
Ayesha: मत [slowly - broken down by syllable] मत [natural native speed]
Brandon: The next word is...
Ayesha: मंगाना [natural native speed]
Brandon: to order something
Ayesha: मंगाना [slowly - broken down by syllable] मंगाना [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next...
Ayesha: अभी [natural native speed]
Brandon: right now
Ayesha: अभी [slowly - broken down by syllable] अभी [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next we have...
Ayesha: अाधा घंटा [natural native speed]
Brandon: half hour
Ayesha: अाधा घंटा [slowly - broken down by syllable] अाधा घंटा [natural native speed]
Brandon: The next one is...
Ayesha: दूर [natural native speed]
Brandon: far
Ayesha: दूर [slowly - broken down by syllable] दूर [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next...
Ayesha: बताना [natural native speed]
Brandon: to tell
Ayesha: बताना [slowly - broken down by syllable] बताना [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next we have...
Ayesha: जगह [natural native speed]
Brandon: place
Ayesha: जगह [slowly - broken down by syllable] जगह [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next...
Ayesha: बचाना [natural native speed]
Brandon: to save
Ayesha: बचाना [slowly - broken down by syllable] बचाना [natural native speed]
Brandon: And the last word is...
Ayesha: रखना [natural native speed]
Brandon: to keep, to put away
Ayesha: रखना [slowly - broken down by syllable] रखना [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Brandon: Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Ayesha: The first word is vageraa, which literally means “et cetera” in Hindi.
Brandon: This is used a lot in Hindi speech. It means “...and similar things.”
Ayesha: Yes, it's placed after the noun it modifies. So if you say gaadii vageraa, where gaadii means “car,” the phrase means “cars and other similar things.”
Brandon: If someone describes a country road saying...
Ayesha: ...vahaan gaadii vageraa Nahiin calTe...
Brandon: ...it means, “Cars and other big vehicles can’t be driven there.”
Ayesha: And if you hear futbauL vageraa, it means “football and other sports.” Similarly, gitaar vageraa means “guitars and other musical instruments.”
Brandon: Right. What’s the next word?
Ayesha: Next up is the verb bacaaNaa.
Brandon: This is a transitive verb that means “to save something.”
Ayesha: The intransitive partner verb is bacNaa, meaning “to save oneself.” bacaaNaa is used for talking about saving people and things from harm, but also for things like “saving a spot,” “saving time,” or “saving space.”
Brandon: That’s a useful verb to know! Okay, now on to the grammar.

Lesson focus

Brandon: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use the perfect tenses in Hindi. In the past, we've covered how to construct verb participles, which are used for perfect tenses. Here we'll take a closer look at their usage.
Ayesha: The past perfect uses Thaa, THii, or THe with the participles to create the tense “had done.” The endings are the same in first, second, and third person, but gender and number agreement is different for transitive and intransitive verbs.
Brandon: As we’ve learned before, in the past tense, intransitive verbs must agree with the object and transitive verbs must agree with the subject. The same rule applies to verbs in the past perfect tense.
Ayesha: Let’s use the verb karNaa, which means “to do,” as an example. The participles are kiyaa in the masculine, kii in the feminine, and kie in the plural.
Brandon: Right, so “I had done,” when spoken by a woman is...
Ayesha: maiNe kii THii. And uNhoNe kie The means, “They had done.” An intransitive example is uSe huaa THaa.
Brandon: Meaning, “It happened to him.”
Ayesha: The intransitive verb hoNaa means “to be" or "happen." Because the intransitive verb agrees with the object, we can tell from huaa Thaa that it's a man.
Brandon: Right, that's the past perfect tense. Let’s move on to the present perfect tense.
Ayesha: The only change here is in the sentence endings, which change to hai in the singular and hain for plural, to give the meaning “have done.”
Brandon: The present perfect tense is the same for the first, second, and third person voices if the verbs are transitive.
Ayesha: Yes, so “I have done” is maiNe kiyaa hai. “We have done” is hamNe kiyaa hai.
Brandon: In this tense too, the verb agreement for transitive verbs is with the subject. With intransitive verbs, the sentence endings change.
Ayesha: Since the intransitive verbs agree with the object, the first person uses huun for the singular, while the second person uses ho for the singular.
Brandon: We can try these with the intransitive verb for “to go.”
Ayesha: Which is jaaNaa.
Brandon: So “you have gone” is..
Ayesha: Tum gae ho or aap gae hain. “I have gone” is main gayaa huun if the speaker is male, and main gayii huun if the speaker is female.
Brandon: That’s right. The plural forms have the same endings. Now let’s move on to the future perfect.
Ayesha: The Hindi sentence ending for “will be” is either hogaa, hogii, or hoNge. These are singular masculine, singular feminine, and plural or in the polite neutral level.
Brandon: The future perfect changes quite a bit in meaning. It becomes predictive in Hindi because saying “will have done” implies “probably.” In this tense too, intransitive verbs agree with the object, and transitive verbs agree with the subject.
Ayesha: So “I will have done” is maiNe kiyaa hogaa OR kii hogii. With jaaNa, if we say, “They will have gone,” it's vo gae hoNge. “I will have gone” is main gayaa hogaa for a male speaker and main gayii for a female speaker.
Brandon: The first and second person examples are closer in meaning to “must have done” than “will have done.”
Ayesha: Right, so with this tense you could say, “I must have made a mistake,” which is maiNe gaLTii kii hogii.
Brandon: Yes, and you could say, “I must have gone the wrong way,” which is...
Ayesha: main gaLaT raaSTaa gayaa hogaa or gayii hogii.

Outro

Brandon: Well, that's all for this lesson. Don’t forget to check the lesson notes to reinforce what you’ve learned here. Thanks for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time!
Ayesha: Sukriyaa aur aLviDaa!

10 Comments

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HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hi Listeners! Try making a simple sentence using the Perfect Tense in Hindi. 

HindiPod101.com Verified
Monday at 07:17 PM
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Hi Ian,


All your translations are correct. You can keep trying for more sentences to get even better understanding of the concept.


Cheers,

Manali

Team HindiPod101.com

Ian
Tuesday at 02:15 AM
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नोटों में व्याकरण समझाया गया था।

In the notes, the grammar had been explained.


टिप्पणियों में व्याकरण एक अलग तरीके से समझाया गया है।

In the comments, the grammar has been explained in a different way.


अगले पाठ के अंत तक, व्याकरण विस्तार से समझाया गया होगा।

By the end of next lesson, the grammar will have been explained in detail.

hindipod101.com Verified
Monday at 09:00 AM
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Hello Bill,


There seems to be no mistake in the lesson notes. You are right about the perfect tense too, it's just that it is explained in a different manner in the lesson notes to make it sound easier to the listeners.


Cheers,

Neha

Team HindiPod101.com

Bill
Monday at 06:14 AM
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There seems to be a mistake in the lesson notes: in the perfect tenses, the intransitive verbs agree with the subject, not the object! Also, the transitive verbs agree with the object, not the subject unless the object is followed by को, in which case the transitive verb takes masculine singular form.

Intransitive:

Sister has gone out. बहन बहार गयी है

Sister had gone out. बहन बहार गयी थी

Transitive:

The boy has read the book. लड़का ने किताब पढ़ी है or लड़का ने किताब को पढ़ा है

HindiPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 09:49 AM
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Hi Anthony,


Good try!



जैसे ही जो घर की बतियाँ बंद हो गयी थी वैसे ही उन्होंने फिर से भर दिये थे।

Correct- jaise he ghar ki baTTiyan banD huin, vah fir se aa gaye

As soon as the houselights went out, they had came on again.


क्या हो जा रहा था?

Correct- kya ho rahaa hai?

What was going on (happening)?


अचानक ही आगे का दरवाज़ा खोला, लेकिन कोई ने नहीं दरवाज़े को खुलाया था।

Correct- achanak he aage ka Darvaaza khula, lekin kissi ne Darvaaza nahi khola tha

Suddenly, the front door opened but nobody had opened the door.


वह धीरे से घर का अंदर चली।

Correct- vah dheere se ghar ke anDar gayi

She walked inside the house quietly.


जासूसी कहानी ज़री हो जाती है। :sweat_smile:

Correctt- jasoosi kahaani jaari rehTi ihai

The mystery story continues.


Cheers,

Neha

Team HindiPod101.com

Anthony
Thursday at 05:44 PM
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एक और गलत है।

Another mistake.


जासूसी कहानी जरी होती है।

The mystery story continues.

Anthony
Thursday at 05:42 PM
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Corrections:


जैसे ही उस ने दरवाज़े की घंटी बजाई थी वैसे ही घर की बतियाँ बंद हो गयी।

As soon as she had rung the doorbell, the houselights went out.


इस को घर खाली लगा लेकिन जैसे ही वह बैठक के कमरे में पहुँची वैसे ही उस ने अपनी आंखों से नज़ारा विश्वास कर नहीं सकी।

To her the house appeared empty but as soon as she reached the living room, she couldn’t believe the view with her own eyes.


जासूसी कहानी जरी हो जाती है।

The mystery story continues.

Anthony
Thursday at 03:49 PM
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छः बजे हैं। उस ने अभी तक काम कत्म किया होगा।

It is 6 o'clock. She will have finished work by now.


मुझे यकीन है कि वह शाम से पहले पहुँची होगी।

I am sure that she will have arrived before evening.


मुमकिन है कि उस की दोस्त भी आ रही हो।

It is possible that her friend may also be coming.

Anthony
Thursday at 03:22 PM
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जब तक उस ने दरवाज़े की घंटी बजाई थी तब तक घर की बतियाँ बंद हो गयी।

As soon as she had rung the doorbell, the houselights went out.


कोई चीज़ थोड़ी-सी अजीब हो रही थी।

Something slightly strange was happening.


जैसे ही जो घर की बतियाँ बंद हो गयी थी वैसे ही उन्होंने फिर से भर दिये थे।

As soon as the houselights went out, they had came on again.


क्या हो जा रहा था?

What was going on (happening)?


अचानक ही आगे का दरवाज़ा खोला, लेकिन कोई ने नहीं दरवाज़े को खुलाया था।

Suddenly, the front door opened but nobody had opened the door.


वह धीरे से घर का अंदर चली।

She walked inside the house quietly.


इस को घर खाली लगा लेकिन जब तक वह बैठक के कमरे में पहुँची तब तक उस ने अपनी आंखों से नज़ारा विश्वास कर नहीं सकी।

To her the house appeared empty by as soon as she reached the living room, she couldn't believe the view with her own eyes.


कोई आकर चल चुका था मगर वे एक रस्ते का नशा छोड़ दिया था।

Someone had come and gone but they had left a trail of destruction.


जासूसी कहानी ज़री हो जाती है।:sweat_smile:

The mystery story continues.